Intermolecular Forces

Underwater Chemists; Discussion of Design Solutions in Tintinnid Ciliates

In this essay we explore tintinnids’ intricate design solutions through the lens of chemical processes and pathways, emphasizing the vital role chemistry plays in their survival. These ciliates employ complex chemical processes that regulate digestion, reproduction, self-protection, and swimming mechanisms. We explore the cell and life cycle of tintinnids, their…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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Mathematical Space-Filling Models and Applications in Adipose Tissue

The mechanisms describing how objects occupy space are some of the most fundamental topics of study and can be applied to countless chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. This is a topic that people have sought to understand for millennia, and it remains an integral part of our understanding of many…

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A Comparison of Keratin Use in Pangolin, Reptile, and Bird Scales

Abstract Skin, a keratin-based tissue, is the largest organ in humans. This essay examines the molecular structural function of keratins, their evolutionary origins, and functions in scales and scale-derived structures.  The organisms examined are pangolins, reptiles, and birds. The hierarchical structure of keratin proteins is described for alpha and beta…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Chemical Mechanisms of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

Acoustic resonance is a highly effective method of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom, pervasively employed by creatures as small as the 4mm Nuctenea sclopetaria spider and as large as  the colossal Orcinus orca (killer whale). Resonance is often achieved either via specialized organs or an extended phenotype.…

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A Biochemical Analysis of Mammalian Milk: Diversity Amongst Species and Biomedical Applications

Lactation is a natural phenomenon that unifies the mammalian class and serves the fundamental purpose of supplying offspring with the essential nutrition and immune protection for survival in the early stages of life.  Despite the existence of physiological diversity across lactating species, the general biochemistry of mammalian milk is a…

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Courtship and Mating: The Chemistry of Pheromones and Their Evolutionary Function

In this essay we investigate the chemistry involved in the reproductive process. Courtship and mating practices are not limited to physical and auditory pursuits. Pheromones cause innate chemical allurement between compatible animals. There are a wide range of pheromones, and each have their own specific properties and functions. Different pheromones…

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