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The Metabolism and Movement of Dinoflagellate from a Chemical Perspective

Dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that target the voltage-gated channels of muscle and nerve cells. Consumption of these toxins through contaminated seafood is the cause of human illnesses such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Some of these toxins are complex molecules and are some of the largest naturally produced carbon chains found…

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Microscopic Mathematics; Tintinnid’s Strategic Survival

In this essay, we explore tintinnids’ survival designs within the context of fundamental mathematics principles. Tintinnids use mathematics concepts for everyday functions such as swimming and self-protection. We delve into tintinnids’ various swimming patterns. We take a close look at the helical swimming motion, or more precisely how that motion…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Chemical Analysis of Amoebae

Amoebae wield a fascinating array of chemical tools to increase their chances of survival and optimize their interactions with their environment. A selection of these tools will be presented and explained in this article, so that as many people as possible may gain inspiration from the ingenuity of nature’s design…

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The Physical Properties of Fats in Mammals

Abstract Fats play many important roles in the bodies of mammals. With various physical and chemical forms, fats can serve different purposes in different animals. In hibernators, different types of adipose tissues—white and brown adipose tissues—serve separate roles. White adipose tissues serve as general purpose energy storage, while brown adipose…

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How mathematics governs the nature of tentacles

The tentacle displays a variety of fascinating properties and functions which scientists have attempted to comprehend via mathematical models over the years. In fact, such numerical modeling emphasizes how the appendage has evolved to become optimized for rapid movement, fine-tuned sensation, and skillful predation via its colour-changing abilities. It also…

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Functional Mechanics of the Elephant and Butterfly Proboscis

The trunk, also known as the proboscis, is a tubular, flexible and hollow appendage that varies in size and function; some species use it to regulate temperature, while others use it for feeding or grabbing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the biological mechanics of the movement and…

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Mathematical Modeling of Marine Suction Cups

Many marine animals have evolved to include suction cups, and the suction cups of the natural world continue to inspire synthetic cup technology. Mathematical models can be used to understand the adaptations of different species and the way these operate. By deepening the knowledge of suction mechanisms, new and better…

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Proboscis Geometry, Allometry and the Mathematical Beauty of Spirals in Nature

Abstract The proboscis has many functions, notably feeding and mating, making it an incredibly useful organ. This paper aims to explore its structure and study the type of relationship between its components, called an allometric relationship. Allometry also appears when studying  how changes in structure affect some functions of the…

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Using Mathematical Principles to Gain a Deeper Understanding of the Form and Function of Hooves

The role of ungulates’ hooves, which are morphologically complex structures, is to support body weight and provide traction to aid in their adaptation to varied external conditions. This essay aims to investigate the relationship between the mathematical model and the morphology of the hoof. The golden ratio, an irrational constant…

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Mathematical Space-Filling Models and Applications in Adipose Tissue

The mechanisms describing how objects occupy space are some of the most fundamental topics of study and can be applied to countless chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. This is a topic that people have sought to understand for millennia, and it remains an integral part of our understanding of many…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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