Hydrophobicity

Mathematical Space-Filling Models and Applications in Adipose Tissue

The mechanisms describing how objects occupy space are some of the most fundamental topics of study and can be applied to countless chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. This is a topic that people have sought to understand for millennia, and it remains an integral part of our understanding of many…

Read More »

A Comparison of Keratin Use in Pangolin, Reptile, and Bird Scales

Abstract Skin, a keratin-based tissue, is the largest organ in humans. This essay examines the molecular structural function of keratins, their evolutionary origins, and functions in scales and scale-derived structures.  The organisms examined are pangolins, reptiles, and birds. The hierarchical structure of keratin proteins is described for alpha and beta…

Read More »

Chemical Mechanisms of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

Acoustic resonance is a highly effective method of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom, pervasively employed by creatures as small as the 4mm Nuctenea sclopetaria spider and as large as  the colossal Orcinus orca (killer whale). Resonance is often achieved either via specialized organs or an extended phenotype.…

Read More »

Courtship and Mating: The Chemistry of Pheromones and Their Evolutionary Function

In this essay we investigate the chemistry involved in the reproductive process. Courtship and mating practices are not limited to physical and auditory pursuits. Pheromones cause innate chemical allurement between compatible animals. There are a wide range of pheromones, and each have their own specific properties and functions. Different pheromones…

Read More »

Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a vast…

Read More »

Taste in Birds

For a long time, it was agreed that birds did not have a sense of taste, or that if they did, it was minimal (Rowland et al., 2015). In fact, research into whether they even had taste buds only began 50 years after taste organs were described for fish, amphibia,…

Read More »

Molecular Design of the Spine and Spinal Cord

This paper discusses the molecular aspects of the spine and the spinal cord. It explores the purpose of the spinal cord and how it operates in the body. The report then investigates how evolution has changed the spine and spinal cord of numerous species such as different reptiles, fish, and…

Read More »

Molecular and Histological Structures of Generic Mammalian Hair and Fur

Keratin structures are found throughout the animal world and can be found in diverse forms with varying functions. Hair has evolved to fit the needs of animals in their respective environments and thus has resulted in the range of keratin structures that can be seen in nature, from porcupine quills…

Read More »

Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomolecular and Chemical Engineering

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained, however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

Read More »