Neurons and Neurotransmitters

Speed, Sense, and Strike: The Biochemistry of Tentacles and their Chemical Interactions with the Environment

Abstract The tentacle has long been a curiosity to scientists for its unique and diverse properties and functions, perhaps since antiquity when Aristotle observed the ability of cephalopods to regenerate lost tentacles and arms. Today, tentacles continue to inspire scientific innovation, such as a biomimetic recognition strategy for capturing and…

Read More »

A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

Read More »

Chemical Mechanisms of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

Acoustic resonance is a highly effective method of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom, pervasively employed by creatures as small as the 4mm Nuctenea sclopetaria spider and as large as  the colossal Orcinus orca (killer whale). Resonance is often achieved either via specialized organs or an extended phenotype.…

Read More »

A Neurochemical Overview of Sleep, its Deprivation and Hibernation

The phenomenon of sleep has been universally observed among animals, and is driven by a plethora of chemical processes that regulate the animal’s brain activity. The onset of sleep brings about a number of chemical changes driven by various neurotransmitters. These changes allow the brain to carry out and improve…

Read More »

Regulation of the Gut and its Effect on Animal Behavior

This paper explores how neurotransmitters, chemical signals, and the enteric nervous system regulate this impressive organ. It then follows with an extensive account of how the gut microbiome influences social groups, recognition cues, and mating preferences among animals. Finally, acting as complementary sections for “Stable Isotopes and Diet Analysis: Insight…

Read More »

Information Storage and Processing Analysis: The Barn Owl Ear

This report intends to discuss the organ of the ear from an information storage and processing perspective. To do so, the ear of the barn owl is used as a reference. The function of the barn owl ear from such a perspective will first be examined, followed by a detailed…

Read More »

Biomolecular Factors for Immunity, Color Change, and Mechanical Strength of the Integument

The skin is a highly complex organ. It contains many components which allow it to fulfil its functions. These components include various cells and proteins which are regulated by intricate biological pathways. Across different organisms, there is a large variety of these components, which exist at several levels of complexity and…

Read More »