Perception

How mathematics governs the nature of tentacles

The tentacle displays a variety of fascinating properties and functions which scientists have attempted to comprehend via mathematical models over the years. In fact, such numerical modeling emphasizes how the appendage has evolved to become optimized for rapid movement, fine-tuned sensation, and skillful predation via its colour-changing abilities. It also…

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Speed, Sense, and Strike: The Biochemistry of Tentacles and their Chemical Interactions with the Environment

Abstract The tentacle has long been a curiosity to scientists for its unique and diverse properties and functions, perhaps since antiquity when Aristotle observed the ability of cephalopods to regenerate lost tentacles and arms. Today, tentacles continue to inspire scientific innovation, such as a biomimetic recognition strategy for capturing and…

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Geometry is Key: Mathematical Modeling of Whiskers and Antennae

Abstract Rat whiskers can be  modeled by Euler spirals,  curves with linear change in curvature. One hypothesis explaining vibrissae shape is that the linear growth of rat whiskers creates linear curvature. Another hypothesis is that the Euler spiral is an optimal shape to satisfy its sensory needs. The patterning of…

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Comparison of Antenna and Whisker Functions in Different Environments

Animals and insects use whiskers and antennae for orientation, foraging, stalking prey, finding mates, and fighting. This article explores the function of whiskers and antennae in different environments and species. Rats use a whisking motion to contact surfaces and gather sensory information regarding object shapes and textures. Kinetic motion generated…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

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Resonating Devices in Nature for Communication and Information Reception

ABSTRACT Vibrations and resonance are pervasive means of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom. The tools, appendages, and organs used by an animal to amplify vibrations are known as resonating devices, which are the focus of this review. Animals from cicadas to lions employ resonating devices for functions…

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Chemical Mechanisms of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

Acoustic resonance is a highly effective method of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom, pervasively employed by creatures as small as the 4mm Nuctenea sclopetaria spider and as large as  the colossal Orcinus orca (killer whale). Resonance is often achieved either via specialized organs or an extended phenotype.…

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Superpowers in the Animal Kingdom

Navigating an unfamiliar environment can prove difficult for organisms that lack the necessary adaptations. Nevertheless, some animals possess unique senses that help them with the perception of their specific surroundings. Over many years of evolution, they have adopted ‘superpowers,’ ranging beyond our five senses. These abilities aid their species in…

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