Fluid Mechanics

Just Keep Swimming: Structure, Movement, and Light Interactions of Unicellular Green Algae

          Popular scientific theory suggests that life on earth originated in a primordial ocean billions of years ago. Basic prokaryotic cells allegedly diverged into eukaryotes, and chloroplasts that produce oxygen later appeared. The first organisms with functioning chloroplasts are presumed to be a kind of marine algae. The genus of…

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Phenotypic Adaptation of Daphnia Throughout Evolution

Abstract Daphnia, referred to as water fleas due to their distinctive hop-and-sink swimming pattern, are commonly found navigating freshwater lakes and ponds. Their phenotype, finely tuned to their environment and way of life, is dynamically adaptive throughout their lifecycle, showcasing variations in eye size, carapace shape, and swimming behaviors. Their compound

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Exploring the Mathematics of Unicellular Green Algae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii)

Mathematics could be described as an area of knowledge involving the use of numbers, equations, and models to describe phenomena, but at its essence, mathematics is the language of the universe. Accordingly, every aspect of the natural world is governed by this “language,” and with each passing day, humanity draws…

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Copepods Through the Lens of Math

Abstract The silent artistic order of the natural world has been revealed through mathematical concepts such as the Fibonacci sequence or the Golden Ratio. The beauty of nature is not random chaos but a manifestation of seemingly abstract mathematics. This review paper will present copepods through the distinct lens of

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Copepods Through the Lens of Physics

Abstract This research paper will present copepods from a physics approach while focusing on three key aspects. To begin, the low Reynolds number environment in which copepods reside makes them face entirely different challenges than larger organisms when it comes to the basics for survival like moving, eating, detecting, and

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Discussion of Nature’s Design Solutions in Tintinnids: Masters of Microzooplankton Survival

In this essay, we explore tintinnids’ survival designs within the context of fundamental physics principles. Tintinnids employ diverse mechanisms to outmaneuver predators, locate prey, and safeguard themselves. To avoid predators, tintinnids utilize specific swimming patterns, attach to groups of particles, develop symbiotic relationships with diatoms, and have undergone morphological adaptations…

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The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Physical Principles Governing the Movement of Dinoflagellates and The Implications for Their Interactions in Aquatic Ecosystems

Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotic cells. There are around 2400 known species of dinoflagellates. This phylum is very diverse; among different species, we observe several unique characteristics of behavior and morphology. All dinoflagellates, however, have two flagella. These flagella allow them to swim in a unique and interesting manner. A dinoflagellate…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Physical Analysis of Amoeba

Out of all the types of cell migration, amoeboid movement is studied very extensively due to its use by important biological components such as white blood cells. Despite the attention it has received, this type of cell movement has yet to be fully understood. Examining it from different perspectives helps…

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An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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