Arthropods (Arachnids, Crustaceans, Insects)

Functional Mechanics of the Elephant and Butterfly Proboscis

The trunk, also known as the proboscis, is a tubular, flexible and hollow appendage that varies in size and function; some species use it to regulate temperature, while others use it for feeding or grabbing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the biological mechanics of the movement and…

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Proboscis Geometry, Allometry and the Mathematical Beauty of Spirals in Nature

Abstract The proboscis has many functions, notably feeding and mating, making it an incredibly useful organ. This paper aims to explore its structure and study the type of relationship between its components, called an allometric relationship. Allometry also appears when studying  how changes in structure affect some functions of the…

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An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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Mechanical Analysis of Animal Horns

This essay dives into animal horns and the physical composition, mechanical properties, and ingenious designs that make them incredibly effective at everything they do. It features a selection of horn structures from different organisms in the animal kingdom, which demonstrates the diversity of horn structures while also showing the uniform…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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Geometry is Key: Mathematical Modeling of Whiskers and Antennae

Abstract Rat whiskers can be  modeled by Euler spirals,  curves with linear change in curvature. One hypothesis explaining vibrissae shape is that the linear growth of rat whiskers creates linear curvature. Another hypothesis is that the Euler spiral is an optimal shape to satisfy its sensory needs. The patterning of…

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Comparison of Antenna and Whisker Functions in Different Environments

Animals and insects use whiskers and antennae for orientation, foraging, stalking prey, finding mates, and fighting. This article explores the function of whiskers and antennae in different environments and species. Rats use a whisking motion to contact surfaces and gather sensory information regarding object shapes and textures. Kinetic motion generated…

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A Chemical Perspective on the Carapace

Abstract The carapace’s chemical properties are of interest in a lot of scientific research since they provide insight into an organisms’ life cycles and ecological niche. This article presents a few chemical perspectives on carapace, including their evolution, calcification, pigment production, and composition. In the evolution section, the chemical processes…

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Crab Chelae Allometry and Implications on Game-Theoretic Armament Evolution

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral component of many arthropod species. Many species, from arachnids to crustaceans, rely on the chelae for survival. Chelae are a highly functional and morphologically diverse group of structures found in crustaceans whose functions range from cracking open coconuts in coconut crabs to…

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A Geometrical Analysis of Different Animals’ Carapace

This article explores the applications of geometry to the carapace of different organisms. The initial focus is on the three-dimensional shape of the turtle carapace to introduce the Gomboc shape which provides the self-righting feature to the turtle based on its unique property of equilibrium points. Then, the patterns of…

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The Metabolic and Regulatory Roles of Adipose Tissue in Organisms

Fats are one of the most versatile molecules in mammals, fulfilling countless metabolic and non-metabolic roles. Metabolism of fats serves many purposes. Through lipolysis, fat molecules are broken down into glycerol and three fatty acid chains, which in turn are used by cells to produce energy. Through the reverse process,…

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