Biomimicry, Biomimetics

Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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Fancy Footwork: A Morphological Study of the Role of the Hoof in Ungulate Locomotion in Habitats Around the World

In many mammals around the world, nature has designed a variable and complex structure placed at the tips of limbs called a hoof. Hoofed mammals, also called ungulates, are divided into two orders: even- and odd-toed ungulates. The divergence of these mammals from a common ancestor has led to the…

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The Hydrodynamic Advantages of Shark Scales

This essay examines the drag-reductive properties of sharks’ scales and analyzes the macroscale and microscale structures and mechanisms that diminished turbulence for the fish in motion over the course of evolution. Fluid dynamics theory and Reynold’s number are used to explain the high reduction of turbulence and friction drag in…

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Exploration of Mathematical Laws Governing Claws and their Applications within Flying Animals, Terrestrial Pests, and Amniotes

Claws are one of the most widely utilized tools within organisms, and for a good reason: their purposeful constructions, described by mathematical laws and correlations, allow a wide range of use. This research paper investigates these fascinating mathematical relationships, beginning with the connection between claw growth and logarithmic functions. Applying…

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Review of the Mechanical, Structural, and Physical Properties of Pincers: An Evolutionary Wonder

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral and signature part of many arthropods. From arachnids to crustaceans, pincers exhibit critical functional roles in survival. The pincers of scorpions are notably multifunctional with their importance in seizing and capturing prey while inflicting pain and deterring predators. In crustaceans, chelae exhibit…

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Mechanical Overview of Mollusk Shell Formation and Structure

For mollusks to thrive in ecosystems swarming with predators and harsh environmental conditions, their shells have acquired specific characteristics aiming to minimize the mechanical energy from external and internal stresses. This research focuses on four such structural adaptations: coiling, ribbing, spines, and shell microarchitecture. Each of these structures has its…

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