Scattering

The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Animal Communication: A Physical Review

Communication in the animal kingdom has been explored by humans for centuries. As the species with the most elaborate form of communication, language, we seek to understand how other species interact amongst themselves. Though we are unable to comprehend their communication in the way that we understand our own speech,…

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Molecular and Histological Structures of Generic Mammalian Hair and Fur

Keratin structures are found throughout the animal world and can be found in diverse forms with varying functions. Hair has evolved to fit the needs of animals in their respective environments and thus has resulted in the range of keratin structures that can be seen in nature, from porcupine quills…

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Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Mammalian Fur

The presence of hair, or rather keratin structures in nature is abundant. A wide range of animals have keratin structures present in their physiology that serve diverse and varied purposes. Any animal’s fur is optimized for their environment, which leads to the wide range of keratin structures observed in nature. …

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The Optical Properties of Camera Eyes

Sight undeniably plays a crucial role in the lives of many organisms on Earth. Many species heavily rely on sight for their survival; vision provides to them the early warning stimuli signaling the presence of a threat. However, it also enriches our perception of our surroundings, giving it color, form,…

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The Nose: An Examination and Comparison of the Turbinate Structures of Aquatic Animals, Terrestrial Caniformia, and Humans

In recent years, researchers have studied biological systems with an engineering perspective, and have found that structures in nature are designed to respond to a specific function. The nose is one example of how evolution has formed a diversity of shapes for the same structure to accommodate the species’ needs…

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