Pheromones

Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Adaptations in Chemical Processes

This article explores the chemistry behind the diverse functions and characteristics of aquatic fungi, a fascinating group of microorganisms that inhabit freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic fungi play an important role in the cycling of nutrients and the decomposition of organic matter. This article gives an overview elucidating the key…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Patterns and Networks in Animal Colonies

This essay analyses an assortment of animal homes and the way they are constructed, maintained, and affected due to the environment that surrounds them. Since the usage of a refuge has been moulded by the evolution of animals in their original environment, recurring patterns can be observed when analyzing these…

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Animal Communication: A Mathematical Review

Nature is composed of a variety of colours and rhythms.  Within these displays of color and rhythm exist patterns and relations, which have been studied and modelled to better understand existing relations and recurrences. In the animal kingdom, communication has evolved through both spontaneous and instantaneous patterns and relations, which can be…

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Mathematical Framework for Animal Foraging Patterns and Forager Population Dynamics

The animal kingdom encompasses all kinds of animals that collect their food supplies in unique ways. Consequently, by using mathematical language to describe these systems of behaviours, one can better understand and predict the way animals proceed during their food source search. This essay examines a few mathematical models describing…

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Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different forms…

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Master of Camouflage: Chemical Deception in Insect and Plant Species

When the topic of camouflage and mimicry is discussed, it is often associated with the idea of colors and complex patterning. The visual aspect of camouflage is something that many are familiar with. Plenty of organisms express an array of vibrant colours and deceiving visuals for both protection and methods…

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Courtship and Mating: The Chemistry of Pheromones and Their Evolutionary Function

In this essay we investigate the chemistry involved in the reproductive process. Courtship and mating practices are not limited to physical and auditory pursuits. Pheromones cause innate chemical allurement between compatible animals. There are a wide range of pheromones, and each have their own specific properties and functions. Different pheromones…

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An Overview of Chemical Communications in Interspecies Mutualism Relationships

From the first living beings (bacteria, protozoa) to that of the most organized beings (mammals, insects, etc.), chemical communication, in the form of molecular exchange, has been an essential and universally used communication system. However, this system has only been studied for less than a hundred years, while the vision…

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Use of Chemosensors in Foraging Animals

All animals must search for and collect the substances they consume in order to survive. However, this foraging process is not as simple as it may seem, and this leads these various animals towards strategies which can maximize the efficiency of this essential task. Being that animals reside within chemically…

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