Friction

Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Biomechanics of Marine Suction Cups and Applications to Artificial Suction Technology

Suction cups are important adhesive adaptations for many marine animals, allowing for locomotion, predation, stability, and grasping of objects. Interesting morphological adaptations have allowed the suction cups of distinct species to best accommodate the purpose of the suctioning mechanism as well as the unique environment that the organism inhabits. The…

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Fancy Footwork: A Morphological Study of the Role of the Hoof in Ungulate Locomotion in Habitats Around the World

In many mammals around the world, nature has designed a variable and complex structure placed at the tips of limbs called a hoof. Hoofed mammals, also called ungulates, are divided into two orders: even- and odd-toed ungulates. The divergence of these mammals from a common ancestor has led to the…

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The Hydrodynamic Advantages of Shark Scales

This essay examines the drag-reductive properties of sharks’ scales and analyzes the macroscale and microscale structures and mechanisms that diminished turbulence for the fish in motion over the course of evolution. Fluid dynamics theory and Reynold’s number are used to explain the high reduction of turbulence and friction drag in…

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Applications of Newtonian Mechanics in the Animal Molting Process

Molting or ecdysis is the intricate yet routine biological process through which the external layer is shed and replaced. Molting is necessary as it allows organisms to grow at a healthy rate, however it is a very risky process that often leaves the animal vulnerable and exposed for the duration…

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