Skin

The Hydrodynamic Advantages of Shark Scales

This essay examines the drag-reductive properties of sharks’ scales and analyzes the macroscale and microscale structures and mechanisms that diminished turbulence for the fish in motion over the course of evolution. Fluid dynamics theory and Reynold’s number are used to explain the high reduction of turbulence and friction drag in…

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Reaction Diffusion Patterns in Jaws of the Animal Kingdom

The endless number of patterns in nature is fascinating; they vary from spots on tigers, to lines on wood, to even teeth patterns in alligators. A mystery lies beneath all of this variety: how do these complex patterns arise and form such differing patterns? The origin of these patterns in…

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Applications of Newtonian Mechanics in the Animal Molting Process

Molting or ecdysis is the intricate yet routine biological process through which the external layer is shed and replaced. Molting is necessary as it allows organisms to grow at a healthy rate, however it is a very risky process that often leaves the animal vulnerable and exposed for the duration…

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Masters of Camouflage: Mechanisms of Dynamic Skin Colouration in Cephalopods

Within the animal kingdom, predation pressure has been one of the largest contributing factors towards evolution within species. The presence of predators within communities has forced animals to develop both passive and defensive mechanisms in order to increase fitness. For this research paper, the focus will be directed towards the…

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Evolution of Mammary Glands and the Biomechanics of Mammalian Lactation

Lactation constitutes an important aspect of mammalian physiology and reproduction and is a key trait that defines mammals. The evolution of lactation is a story of great controversy, however, and the main theories behind the apparition of mammary glands will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In addition, the origin…

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly, we…

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Biomolecular Factors for Immunity, Color Change, and Mechanical Strength of the Integument

The skin is a highly complex organ. It contains many components which allow it to fulfil its functions. These components include various cells and proteins which are regulated by intricate biological pathways. Across different organisms, there is a large variety of these components, which exist at several levels of complexity and…

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Healing, Mechanical Loading, and Water-harvesting with Integument Structures and their Biomimetic Applications

This report focuses on the structures that enable healing, mechanical loading, and water-harvesting of the integument (i.e., skin, feathers, hair, scales, etc.). By examining the morphologies that allow for these functions, and detailing their interrelation, we develop a basis for understanding how an organism’s design is related to its operation.…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomechanics and Materials 

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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