Circulatory/Cardiovascular System

Chemical Adaptation in Viviparous Birthing and Oviparous Hatching

One of the first stages of life in any animal is time spent as a developing embryo. Every embryo must undergo complex development aided by its parent for a certain period of time before their birth or hatching, and this process varies greatly depending on the type of species. Specifically,…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Information and Storage Processing

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusion rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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Information Signaling and Processing in the Vascular System

This report explores the notions of design and function of the vascular system as products of evolutionary processes in the framework of information storage and processing. The vascular system serves as a transportation system, delivering oxygen and sugars to other organs. The brain is the main site of information processing…

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The Heart: Information and Storage Processing

We start by providing a general overview of the cardiac conduction system, beginning with the circuit the electric signal takes through the heart and then focusing in on specific cells. Such a complex cardiac conduction system is only fully present in mammals. We will then cover the signal conduction process…

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Taste in Birds

For a long time, it was agreed that birds did not have a sense of taste, or that if they did, it was minimal (Rowland et al., 2015). In fact, research into whether they even had taste buds only began 50 years after taste organs were described for fish, amphibia,…

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Biomolecular Design of Veins and Arteries

The designs that enable arteries and veins to execute their functions are the products of evolutionary processes. This report explores this notion within the framework of biomolecular, cellular, and tissue engineering. Nitric oxide will be presented as an example of how blood vessels employ biochemicals to maintain homeostasis. Biosensor design…

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The Heart: A Biochemical and Cellular Perspective

This paper focuses on the biochemical and cellular properties of different cells found in the heart tissues such as cardiomyocytes and cardiac pacemaker cells. Cardiac output is explained to demonstrate how altering certain determinants can impact the overall function of the heart due to cellular properties. Some of these properties…

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The Colorful Chemistry of Oxygen Carriers in Blood

This essay focuses on different types of oxygen carriers in the blood. In “The Well-Kept Secrets of Blood: The Mechanism of a Vital Fluid”, an examination of blood properties was made with a special introduction to physiological aspects of erythrocytes (Benchetrite et al., 2020). Indeed, erythrocytes are a key component…

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Comparative Analysis of the Biological Mechanics of Veins and Arteries in Animals

Outcomes of evolution, arteries and veins are dynamic vessels that serve to transport materials to the body’s tissues and organs. This is both enabled and facilitated by the designs that endow the devices with this ability. This report introduces the concept of design and function regarding blood vessels, analyzed within…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomechanics and Materials 

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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