Reptilians

A Geometrical Analysis of Different Animals’ Carapace

This article explores the applications of geometry to the carapace of different organisms. The initial focus is on the three-dimensional shape of the turtle carapace to introduce the Gomboc shape which provides the self-righting feature to the turtle based on its unique property of equilibrium points. Then, the patterns of…

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A Comparison of Keratin Use in Pangolin, Reptile, and Bird Scales

Abstract Skin, a keratin-based tissue, is the largest organ in humans. This essay examines the molecular structural function of keratins, their evolutionary origins, and functions in scales and scale-derived structures.  The organisms examined are pangolins, reptiles, and birds. The hierarchical structure of keratin proteins is described for alpha and beta…

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A Multi-Functional Armor: Carapaces’ Roles in Different Animals

The carapace is the dorsal section of the exoskeleton of many animals. This article discusses the multifunctionality of some animals’ carapaces. In the introduction, the necessity of the carapace and its potential hindrance is generally described. The body uses peer-reviewed research, experiments, and reviews to explain the structure and multifunctionality…

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A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Jaws: Terrific yet Terrifying

Jaws are an amazing system as they can contribute to many aspects of life such as eating, defence, locomotion, etc. Each species has specific needs and thus each set of jaws tends to be adapted to fit these demands. In the animal kingdom, some jaws show unique characteristics, which not…

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Mathematical Modeling of Animal Tongues

Mathematical modeling of animal tongue functions has improved the understanding of the animal kingdom and how species have evolved to efficiently perform tasks necessary for their survival. The chameleon can rapidly project its tongue, achieving large extension distances due to energy storage within the geometric structures of their tongues. This…

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Reaction Diffusion Patterns in Jaws of the Animal Kingdom

The endless number of patterns in nature is fascinating; they vary from spots on tigers, to lines on wood, to even teeth patterns in alligators. A mystery lies beneath all of this variety: how do these complex patterns arise and form such differing patterns? The origin of these patterns in…

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Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different forms…

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