Birds

A Comparison of Keratin Use in Pangolin, Reptile, and Bird Scales

Abstract Skin, a keratin-based tissue, is the largest organ in humans. This essay examines the molecular structural function of keratins, their evolutionary origins, and functions in scales and scale-derived structures.  The organisms examined are pangolins, reptiles, and birds. The hierarchical structure of keratin proteins is described for alpha and beta…

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Mathematical modeling of aerodynamic functions of aquatic and avian tails

The world of mathematics holds much value when it comes to computing, establishing, and resolving the many different complex relationships found in natural sciences. This, naturally, holds true for biological systems and their vast array of unique biomechanical tools and even for the complex diversity in social behaviors. In this…

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Exploration of Mathematical Laws Governing Claws and their Applications within Flying Animals, Terrestrial Pests, and Amniotes

Claws are one of the most widely utilized tools within organisms, and for a good reason: their purposeful constructions, described by mathematical laws and correlations, allow a wide range of use. This research paper investigates these fascinating mathematical relationships, beginning with the connection between claw growth and logarithmic functions. Applying…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Mathematical Modeling of Animal Tongues

Mathematical modeling of animal tongue functions has improved the understanding of the animal kingdom and how species have evolved to efficiently perform tasks necessary for their survival. The chameleon can rapidly project its tongue, achieving large extension distances due to energy storage within the geometric structures of their tongues. This…

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Mathematical Modeling of the Molting Process

Molting is a crucial and intricate process requiring the timely shedding of an animal’s body part, which may include the epidermis, the pelage, or the entire exoskeleton. The unique mechanisms governing the molting cycles of different species can be quantitatively analyzed to predict patterns and behaviours based on key parameters.…

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The Gravity of Connectivity in Migratory Birds During a Climate Emergency

All populations form networks which describe their interactions, mixing and mating. Migratory populations also form networks, but these are much more complex because of the continuously migrating populations throughout the seasons. Migratory networks are more fragile but are a fundamental pillar to bird populations. They can aid populations but can…

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