Biosynthesis and Bioprocessing

The Innovative Structural and Physical Properties of Radiolaria

ABSTRACT The intricate silica skeletons of Radiolaria, a type of marine microorganism, exhibit striking optical fiber-like properties, offering a potential roadmap for future innovations in the optical field. Beyond their applications for photonics, radiolarians are fascinating models for studying buoyancy control. They exhibit a variety of adaptive mechanisms that alter

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Shaping Success: A Mathematical Exploration of Cyanobacteria across Scales

ABSTRACT Mathematical models and functions are familiar tools used to study biological systems and interactions, in particular with the study of infectious diseases. Epidemic and pandemic dynamics, however, are only one example of their applications for adding analysis, understanding, and insight into complex topics. In this essay, cyanobacteria’s size and

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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From Fetus to Fossil: A Microscopic Analysis of the Chemistry of the Hoof Throughout the Stages of Life

Abstract Hooves are morphologically complex structures among ungulates that support body weight and provide traction to assist their adaptation to various external environments. This article aims to investigate the differences in hooves throughout the stages of life. The perspective narrows from the general topic of hooves down to the fascinating…

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The Design of the Spine

Abstract This paper discusses the design of the spine in bison and how these animals support their heads without tiring quickly. Furthermore, the purposes of spinal modeling are discussed along with their real-life applications. Introduction The spine is crucial to the function of all vertebrates as it is allows movement,

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Abstract Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly,

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Regulation of the Gut and its Effect on Animal Behavior

Abstract This paper explores how neurotransmitters, chemical signals, and the enteric nervous system regulate this impressive organ. It then follows with an extensive account of how the gut microbiome influences social groups, recognition cues, and mating preferences among animals. Finally, acting as complementary sections for “Stable Isotopes and Diet Analysis:

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Information and Storage Processing

Abstract This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusion rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological

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An Analysis of Sensors and Systems of Artificial Noses

Abstract In the past couple decades, the field of artificial organs has seen immense progress, such as more comfortable prosthetic limbs and artificial livers. However, in recent years, a need for a technology able to detect the presence of molecules that the human nose cannot has emerged, leading to the

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Visual Lateralization in the Animal Kingdom

Introduction The vertebrate brain has succeeded in the specialization of different traits and abilities through dividing it into two hemispheres, where the left hemisphere is better than the right one when conducting certain tasks, and vice versa. This specialization, called brain lateralization, also effects vision in vertebrates. In fact, visual

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Information Storage and Processing Analysis: The Barn Owl Ear

Abstract This report intends to discuss the organ of the ear from an information storage and processing perspective. To do so, the ear of the barn owl is used as a reference. The function of the barn owl ear from such a perspective will first be examined, followed by a

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Information Signaling and Processing in the Vascular System

Abstract  This report explores the notions of design and function of the vascular system as products of evolutionary processes in the framework of information storage and processing. The vascular system serves as a transportation system, delivering oxygen and sugars to other organs. The brain is the main site of information

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