Gustation (Taste)

A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Mathematical Modeling of Animal Tongues

Mathematical modeling of animal tongue functions has improved the understanding of the animal kingdom and how species have evolved to efficiently perform tasks necessary for their survival. The chameleon can rapidly project its tongue, achieving large extension distances due to energy storage within the geometric structures of their tongues. This…

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Sensory Cascades and Pathways – Natural and Artificial Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks are used to mimic the functionalities of the brain via computing systems. This paper will first examine the general structure and function of artificial neural networks, as well as their similarities and differences to the brain’s neural network, after which they are modelled. Then, the essay will…

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Use of Chemosensors in Foraging Animals

All animals must search for and collect the substances they consume in order to survive. However, this foraging process is not as simple as it may seem, and this leads these various animals towards strategies which can maximize the efficiency of this essential task. Being that animals reside within chemically…

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Evolution of Mammary Glands and the Biomechanics of Mammalian Lactation

Lactation constitutes an important aspect of mammalian physiology and reproduction and is a key trait that defines mammals. The evolution of lactation is a story of great controversy, however, and the main theories behind the apparition of mammary glands will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In addition, the origin…

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Taste in Birds

For a long time, it was agreed that birds did not have a sense of taste, or that if they did, it was minimal (Rowland et al., 2015). In fact, research into whether they even had taste buds only began 50 years after taste organs were described for fish, amphibia,…

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