Endocrine System

The Metabolic and Regulatory Roles of Adipose Tissue in Organisms

Fats are one of the most versatile molecules in mammals, fulfilling countless metabolic and non-metabolic roles. Metabolism of fats serves many purposes. Through lipolysis, fat molecules are broken down into glycerol and three fatty acid chains, which in turn are used by cells to produce energy. Through the reverse process,…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Mathematical Modeling of the Molting Process

Molting is a crucial and intricate process requiring the timely shedding of an animal’s body part, which may include the epidermis, the pelage, or the entire exoskeleton. The unique mechanisms governing the molting cycles of different species can be quantitatively analyzed to predict patterns and behaviours based on key parameters.…

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Mathematical Modelling in Lactation: An analysis of hormonal regulation and complex lactation mechanisms

 Lactation is a unique natural mechanism shared amongst mammalian species that serves the primary purpose of providing offspring with the vital nutrition and immune support necessary in the early stages of fetal development.  The process of lactation has been extensively researched and has led to the application of mathematical principles…

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Feedback Loops and Circadian Rhythms in Parturition and Hatching

Birthing is the process that keeps animals involved within evolution. Nature encourages animals to reproduce and to allow their offspring to prolong the life of their species. These intricate processes of parturition and hatching are based on mathematical concepts such as feedback loops, where stimulus generates stimulus, and circadian rhythms.…

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Hormonal Control of Molting

Molting is a crucial and intricate process requiring the timely shedding of an animal’s body part, which may include the epidermis, the pelage, or the entire exoskeleton. In accordance with the extraordinary diversity observed within the animal kingdom, molting takes many forms and is characterized by specific processes for each…

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A Biochemical Analysis of Mammalian Milk: Diversity Amongst Species and Biomedical Applications

Lactation is a natural phenomenon that unifies the mammalian class and serves the fundamental purpose of supplying offspring with the essential nutrition and immune protection for survival in the early stages of life.  Despite the existence of physiological diversity across lactating species, the general biochemistry of mammalian milk is a…

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Functional Interpretations of Chemotaxis in Migrating Organisms

There are many functional applications of chemotaxis that form the stepping stones of animal migration. Investigating trophic chains – dynamic networks of interacting species – reveals how migration and changes in population density shift environmental conditions of an ecosystem. It was shown how fish and algae populations can reduce extinction…

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Evolution of Mammary Glands and the Biomechanics of Mammalian Lactation

Lactation constitutes an important aspect of mammalian physiology and reproduction and is a key trait that defines mammals. The evolution of lactation is a story of great controversy, however, and the main theories behind the apparition of mammary glands will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In addition, the origin…

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Biomechanical Adaptations of the Uterus During Parturition and Birthing

Birthing is a fundamental process to the evolution of animal life on earth. The creation of new life pushes a species further in time, continuing millions of years of advancements. However, birthing itself is often dangerous, putting the mother and the fetus in a vulnerable position. Being the center of…

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Regulation of the Gut and its Effect on Animal Behavior

This paper explores how neurotransmitters, chemical signals, and the enteric nervous system regulate this impressive organ. It then follows with an extensive account of how the gut microbiome influences social groups, recognition cues, and mating preferences among animals. Finally, acting as complementary sections for “Stable Isotopes and Diet Analysis: Insight…

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Information Signaling and Processing in the Vascular System

This report explores the notions of design and function of the vascular system as products of evolutionary processes in the framework of information storage and processing. The vascular system serves as a transportation system, delivering oxygen and sugars to other organs. The brain is the main site of information processing…

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