Growth and Regrowth Mechanisms

Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Exploring Aquatic Fungi Through Mathematical Tools

 The beauty of mathematics lies in its ability to create models to simplify complex things in real life and give explanations to them. Models are a great way to study and analyze species in nature and it is the same for aquatic fungi. Mathematical models also help us predict their…

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Speed, Sense, and Strike: The Biochemistry of Tentacles and their Chemical Interactions with the Environment

Abstract The tentacle has long been a curiosity to scientists for its unique and diverse properties and functions, perhaps since antiquity when Aristotle observed the ability of cephalopods to regenerate lost tentacles and arms. Today, tentacles continue to inspire scientific innovation, such as a biomimetic recognition strategy for capturing and…

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From Fetus to Fossil: A Microscopic Analysis of the Chemistry of the Hoof Throughout the Stages of Life

Abstract Hooves are morphologically complex structures among ungulates that support body weight and provide traction to assist their adaptation to various external environments. This article aims to investigate the differences in hooves throughout the stages of life. The perspective narrows from the general topic of hooves down to the fascinating…

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Mechanical Analysis of Animal Horns

This essay dives into animal horns and the physical composition, mechanical properties, and ingenious designs that make them incredibly effective at everything they do. It features a selection of horn structures from different organisms in the animal kingdom, which demonstrates the diversity of horn structures while also showing the uniform…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Spiky Surprises: The Chemistry of Spines and Quills

Many organisms possess an internal defense mechanism, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity is exacerbated further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as resource availability can result in various chemical and structural design mechanisms for spines and quills. However,…

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The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

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The Hormone-Dependent Regenerative Basis of Antlers

Antlers are unique architectures. They are shed and rebuilt at yearly intervals, growing from bony pedicles in early spring to full-fledged structures cast in late March. The antler growth cycle—known as antlerogenesis—is a process controlled by the fluctuating interactions of myriad hormones, mainly testosterone. The growth rate is among the…

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Mathematical Modeling of the Antler Growth Cycle

Antler regeneration is a complex process unique in nature because of its year-long perpetual cycle. Although antlerogenesis is a process shared by all males in the Cervid family, many factors affect individual antler growth and the characteristics of individual antlers. This paper will discuss these factors and their effect on…

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