Plants

Spines: The Multitudes and Multi-functionalities of their Mechanisms

Abstract Many organisms possess internal defense mechanisms, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity exacerbates further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as predation and habitat unique to each species results in various physical design mechanisms for spines and quills.…

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The Complexity of Spines and their Mathematical Connections

Physical phenomena seen in nature are often optimized and refined to achieve a particular function. Evaluating spines’ physical and chemical characteristics can only reveal so much in the story of the optimization process. Modeling is an extremely powerful tool to unlock the secrets of developing the hidden strengths of particular…

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Patterns and Networks in Animal Colonies

This essay analyses an assortment of animal homes and the way they are constructed, maintained, and affected due to the environment that surrounds them. Since the usage of a refuge has been moulded by the evolution of animals in their original environment, recurring patterns can be observed when analyzing these…

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Mathematical Framework for Animal Foraging Patterns and Forager Population Dynamics

The animal kingdom encompasses all kinds of animals that collect their food supplies in unique ways. Consequently, by using mathematical language to describe these systems of behaviours, one can better understand and predict the way animals proceed during their food source search. This essay examines a few mathematical models describing…

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Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different forms…

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Hormonal Control of Molting

Molting is a crucial and intricate process requiring the timely shedding of an animal’s body part, which may include the epidermis, the pelage, or the entire exoskeleton. In accordance with the extraordinary diversity observed within the animal kingdom, molting takes many forms and is characterized by specific processes for each…

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Master of Camouflage: Chemical Deception in Insect and Plant Species

When the topic of camouflage and mimicry is discussed, it is often associated with the idea of colors and complex patterning. The visual aspect of camouflage is something that many are familiar with. Plenty of organisms express an array of vibrant colours and deceiving visuals for both protection and methods…

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The Mechanics and Rates of Organic Matter Decomposition

Despite their differences, living organisms find common ground when their time comes to an end. While life activities cease, the spirit of the afterlife continues in the form of decay – a critical mechanism by which an ecosystem’s nutrients and energy resources are recycled. Within nature’s ecosystems, the important task…

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Physiological and Behavioral Adaptations in Migratory Animals

Migration is a fascinating phenomenon that occurs in many disparate corners of the animal kingdom. To better understand how it works, its similarities, and its differences in relation to variation across species we have explored eight different examples. The microstructure of the Bean Goose’s feather allows durable and light flight.…

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Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a vast…

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