Amphibians (Frogs, Salamanders, Toads)

A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Information and Storage Processing

Abstract This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusion rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological

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Visual Lateralization in the Animal Kingdom

Introduction The vertebrate brain has succeeded in the specialization of different traits and abilities through dividing it into two hemispheres, where the left hemisphere is better than the right one when conducting certain tasks, and vice versa. This specialization, called brain lateralization, also effects vision in vertebrates. In fact, visual

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