Coloration

How mathematics governs the nature of tentacles

The tentacle displays a variety of fascinating properties and functions which scientists have attempted to comprehend via mathematical models over the years. In fact, such numerical modeling emphasizes how the appendage has evolved to become optimized for rapid movement, fine-tuned sensation, and skillful predation via its colour-changing abilities. It also…

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A Chemical Perspective on the Carapace

Abstract The carapace’s chemical properties are of interest in a lot of scientific research since they provide insight into an organisms’ life cycles and ecological niche. This article presents a few chemical perspectives on carapace, including their evolution, calcification, pigment production, and composition. In the evolution section, the chemical processes…

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Quantifying Skin Patterns: Mathematical Interpretations of Camouflaging Techniques in Animals

Abstract The question whether a relationship between mathematics and biology exists has always been up for debate. The reason for such skepticism lies in the obvious complexity within living organisms and the amount of variability. Biologists have a certain level of distrust towards mathematical interpretations as they tend to oversimplify

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Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Abstract Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different

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Animal Communication: A Physical Review

Communication in the animal kingdom has been explored by humans for centuries. As the species with the most elaborate form of communication, language, we seek to understand how other species interact amongst themselves. Though we are unable to comprehend their communication in the way that we understand our own speech,…

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Masters of Camouflage: Mechanisms of Dynamic Skin Colouration in Cephalopods

Within the animal kingdom, predation pressure has been one of the largest contributing factors towards evolution within species. The presence of predators within communities has forced animals to develop both passive and defensive mechanisms in order to increase fitness. For this research paper, the focus will be directed towards the…

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Courtship and Mating: the Physics of Sexual Dimorphism and its Evolutionary Function

Sexual dimorphisms are defined as the differences in size and anatomy between sexes of animals of the same species. These differences arise from reproductive pressures and oftentimes have no survival benefits. The manifestation of such sexual dimorphisms varies significantly based on courting and mating practices. In this essay, we analyze…

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Bioinformatics and Sensory Function of Mammalian Fur: An Analysis of Coat Patterning, Whiskers, and Trigger Hairs

Introduction The Turing pattern, which is further explained in the paper, is an observed pattern in natural systems ranging from cheetah print to coral growth. Alan Turing proposed a mathematical model to describe pattern formation based on reaction and diffusion rates of morphogens, and this model holds true for a

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Abstract Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly,

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How Computers and Robotics Helped Us Understand Flippers

Introduction The advancement of technology has allowed researchers to develop efficient software which aids in the recognition of animals based on their flippers, conduct experiments to further examine the parameters which define the efficacy of these limbs, and manufacture robots which simulate marine animals and their flippers to deepen the

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An Analysis of Sensors and Systems of Artificial Noses

Abstract In the past couple decades, the field of artificial organs has seen immense progress, such as more comfortable prosthetic limbs and artificial livers. However, in recent years, a need for a technology able to detect the presence of molecules that the human nose cannot has emerged, leading to the

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