Bioluminescence

The Metabolism and Movement of Dinoflagellate from a Chemical Perspective

Dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that target the voltage-gated channels of muscle and nerve cells. Consumption of these toxins through contaminated seafood is the cause of human illnesses such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Some of these toxins are complex molecules and are some of the largest naturally produced carbon chains found…

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Animal Communication: A Mathematical Review

Nature is composed of a variety of colours and rhythms.  Within these displays of color and rhythm exist patterns and relations, which have been studied and modelled to better understand existing relations and recurrences. In the animal kingdom, communication has evolved through both spontaneous and instantaneous patterns and relations, which can be…

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Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different forms…

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Master of Camouflage: Chemical Deception in Insect and Plant Species

When the topic of camouflage and mimicry is discussed, it is often associated with the idea of colors and complex patterning. The visual aspect of camouflage is something that many are familiar with. Plenty of organisms express an array of vibrant colours and deceiving visuals for both protection and methods…

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An Overview of Transport-Related Interspecies Relationships

There are many different types of interspecies interactions, and they can benefit or harm the organisms involved. This paper briefs several cases where organisms interact with each other in ways that involve transportation, namely using other species for the purpose of transport. The theme of transport focuses on the physical…

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Courtship and Mating: the Physics of Sexual Dimorphism and its Evolutionary Function

Sexual dimorphisms are defined as the differences in size and anatomy between sexes of animals of the same species. These differences arise from reproductive pressures and oftentimes have no survival benefits. The manifestation of such sexual dimorphisms varies significantly based on courting and mating practices. In this essay, we analyze…

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