Diffusion

Unveiling the Chemistry of Radiolaria: Exploring Elemental Insights and Environmental Significance

– ABSTRACT – The Radiolarian species are a diverse group of marine microorganisms. They are known for their intricate and multi-functional silica skeletons. Due to rough oceanic conditions, the formation of a hard silica shell through biomineralization allows them to maintain their shape. The dissolution of their siliceous skeletons at

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Mechanics and Optics of Cyanobacteria: How to Survive over Billions of Years

Abstract This essay sheds light on a unique photoautotrophic prokaryote that presents a wide range of physical properties. Although billions of years old, cyanobacteria still ingeniously make use of their structural composition, mechanical processes, and optical properties to interact with their surroundings. With a strong gliding motility, a light sensing

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Adaptations in Chemical Processes

This article explores the chemistry behind the diverse functions and characteristics of aquatic fungi, a fascinating group of microorganisms that inhabit freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic fungi play an important role in the cycling of nutrients and the decomposition of organic matter. This article gives an overview elucidating the key…

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Chemical Analysis of Amoebae

Amoebae wield a fascinating array of chemical tools to increase their chances of survival and optimize their interactions with their environment. A selection of these tools will be presented and explained in this article, so that as many people as possible may gain inspiration from the ingenuity of nature’s design…

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A Geometrical Analysis of Different Animals’ Carapace

This article explores the applications of geometry to the carapace of different organisms. The initial focus is on the three-dimensional shape of the turtle carapace to introduce the Gomboc shape which provides the self-righting feature to the turtle based on its unique property of equilibrium points. Then, the patterns of…

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A Chemical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

In the animal kingdom, the evolution of tongue morphology has facilitated the survival of many species by providing advantages in foraging, avoiding predators, prey-catching and discriminating between food sources. Some species, notably the family of squamates, have developed impressive foraging strategies through the interpretation of chemical cues from their environment…

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The Hormone-Dependent Regenerative Basis of Antlers

Antlers are unique architectures. They are shed and rebuilt at yearly intervals, growing from bony pedicles in early spring to full-fledged structures cast in late March. The antler growth cycle—known as antlerogenesis—is a process controlled by the fluctuating interactions of myriad hormones, mainly testosterone. The growth rate is among the…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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Reaction Diffusion Patterns in Jaws of the Animal Kingdom

The endless number of patterns in nature is fascinating; they vary from spots on tigers, to lines on wood, to even teeth patterns in alligators. A mystery lies beneath all of this variety: how do these complex patterns arise and form such differing patterns? The origin of these patterns in…

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Mathematical Models of Molluscan Shell Patterns and Morphology

Mollusk shells’ mesmerizing diversity of forms stems from their variations in shape, features and patterns. While these forms are highly complex and diverse, research has aimed to establish an overarching model that explains the formation of these shell characteristics. This essay explores the mathematical models that capture these natural forms…

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