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Mathematical Marvels of Foraminifera

Abstract Foraminifera are a family of marine unicellular eukaryotes whose fossils can be found throughout the world, from the deepest crevices of the ocean to the highest peaks of the Egyptian Pyramids. In this paper, we explore the mathematical models describing the optimization of common adaptations in foraminifera. Beginning with

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Formidable Foraminifera, Facing Unfavorable Conditions: A Chemical Analysis

Abstract Armed with their network of pseudopodia and armoured by their distinctive shells, foraminifera are single-celled protists known for being ecologically successful marine microorganisms. Rare are the eukaryotes capable of surviving in oxygen-depleted environments, and rarer still are those that have evolved to prefer anoxic or hypoxic conditions, and yet

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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An Analysis of the Chemistry Behind Coccolithophores

            The world’s irreplaceable calcifying organism, coccolithophore, utilizes many different chemical processes in its quest for calcification and survival, among other things. The processes and structures detailed in this paper demonstrate how coccolithophores cleverly use the readily available molecules around them to contribute to their various processes and structural demands.…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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The Biochemical Basis of Fossilization

In exceptional cases, organism remains may fossilize, persisting in sediment and retaining morphological features across great lengths of time. Eluding complete biological breakdown, these special artifacts of nature are evidence of previous life on Earth and archive the planet’s diverse history. Here, we investigate several environmental conditions which influence fossilization,…

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Chemical Adaptation in Viviparous Birthing and Oviparous Hatching

One of the first stages of life in any animal is time spent as a developing embryo. Every embryo must undergo complex development aided by its parent for a certain period of time before their birth or hatching, and this process varies greatly depending on the type of species. Specifically,…

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Design, Purpose and Specificity of the Narwhal’s Tusk

Abstract The narwhal’s tusk is a fascinating organ as it has the composition of a tooth but very different properties, in particular its ability to grow in a straight line. To understand the design mechanism allowing this particular feature, we will first present the composition, function and properties of the

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The Design of the Spine

Abstract This paper discusses the design of the spine in bison and how these animals support their heads without tiring quickly. Furthermore, the purposes of spinal modeling are discussed along with their real-life applications. Introduction The spine is crucial to the function of all vertebrates as it is allows movement,

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