Brain and Nerves

Comparison of Antenna and Whisker Functions in Different Environments

Animals and insects use whiskers and antennae for orientation, foraging, stalking prey, finding mates, and fighting. This article explores the function of whiskers and antennae in different environments and species. Rats use a whisking motion to contact surfaces and gather sensory information regarding object shapes and textures. Kinetic motion generated…

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A Neurochemical Overview of Sleep, its Deprivation and Hibernation

The phenomenon of sleep has been universally observed among animals, and is driven by a plethora of chemical processes that regulate the animal’s brain activity. The onset of sleep brings about a number of chemical changes driven by various neurotransmitters. These changes allow the brain to carry out and improve…

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Sleeping in Flight: Adaptations of a Bird’s Brain

Flying has required birds to develop a plethora of tools to make it as efficient as possible. These biological tools range from different body sizes, body weights, wingspans, feather numbers and their distribution, to an increase in brain to body size ratio to accommodate more developed functions. Multiple types of…

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Information Signaling and Processing in the Vascular System

This report explores the notions of design and function of the vascular system as products of evolutionary processes in the framework of information storage and processing. The vascular system serves as a transportation system, delivering oxygen and sugars to other organs. The brain is the main site of information processing…

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Molecular Design of the Spine and Spinal Cord

This paper discusses the molecular aspects of the spine and the spinal cord. It explores the purpose of the spinal cord and how it operates in the body. The report then investigates how evolution has changed the spine and spinal cord of numerous species such as different reptiles, fish, and…

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Comparative Analysis of the Biological Mechanics of Veins and Arteries in Animals

Outcomes of evolution, arteries and veins are dynamic vessels that serve to transport materials to the body’s tissues and organs. This is both enabled and facilitated by the designs that endow the devices with this ability. This report introduces the concept of design and function regarding blood vessels, analyzed within…

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