Locomotion, Feeding, and Support Systems

The Physical Adaptations Underlying the Tardigrade’s Resistance to Extreme Environmental Conditions 

Although tardigrades were discovered in the late 18th century, they have continued to captivate scientists due to their outstanding resistance to environmental conditions that are lethal to most organisms and that is necessary given their ecological distribution across various environments. Explanations as to the mechanisms underlying this superior resistance have…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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The Physical Properties of Fats in Mammals

Abstract Fats play many important roles in the bodies of mammals. With various physical and chemical forms, fats can serve different purposes in different animals. In hibernators, different types of adipose tissues—white and brown adipose tissues—serve separate roles. White adipose tissues serve as general purpose energy storage, while brown adipose…

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How mathematics governs the nature of tentacles

The tentacle displays a variety of fascinating properties and functions which scientists have attempted to comprehend via mathematical models over the years. In fact, such numerical modeling emphasizes how the appendage has evolved to become optimized for rapid movement, fine-tuned sensation, and skillful predation via its colour-changing abilities. It also…

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Speed, Sense, and Strike: The Biochemistry of Tentacles and their Chemical Interactions with the Environment

Abstract The tentacle has long been a curiosity to scientists for its unique and diverse properties and functions, perhaps since antiquity when Aristotle observed the ability of cephalopods to regenerate lost tentacles and arms. Today, tentacles continue to inspire scientific innovation, such as a biomimetic recognition strategy for capturing and…

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Mathematical Space-Filling Models and Applications in Adipose Tissue

The mechanisms describing how objects occupy space are some of the most fundamental topics of study and can be applied to countless chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. This is a topic that people have sought to understand for millennia, and it remains an integral part of our understanding of many…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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A Chemical Perspective on the Carapace

Abstract The carapace’s chemical properties are of interest in a lot of scientific research since they provide insight into an organisms’ life cycles and ecological niche. This article presents a few chemical perspectives on carapace, including their evolution, calcification, pigment production, and composition. In the evolution section, the chemical processes…

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Crab Chelae Allometry and Implications on Game-Theoretic Armament Evolution

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral component of many arthropod species. Many species, from arachnids to crustaceans, rely on the chelae for survival. Chelae are a highly functional and morphologically diverse group of structures found in crustaceans whose functions range from cracking open coconuts in coconut crabs to…

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