Immune System

Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Functional Mechanics of the Elephant and Butterfly Proboscis

The trunk, also known as the proboscis, is a tubular, flexible and hollow appendage that varies in size and function; some species use it to regulate temperature, while others use it for feeding or grabbing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the biological mechanics of the movement and…

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A Biochemical Analysis of Mammalian Milk: Diversity Amongst Species and Biomedical Applications

Lactation is a natural phenomenon that unifies the mammalian class and serves the fundamental purpose of supplying offspring with the essential nutrition and immune protection for survival in the early stages of life.  Despite the existence of physiological diversity across lactating species, the general biochemistry of mammalian milk is a…

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Phylogenetic Adaptations and Biochemical Mechanisms Contributing to the Unique Lifespan and Ageing of Bats

Scientists have investigated the cause of ageing for centuries, but there is no single source of age, rather, the ageing process occurs due to a combination of numerous factors. Examined in this paper are 4 categories of determinants of maximum lifespan in organisms: telomere dynamics and maintenance, mitochondrial repair and…

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Chemical Warfare in Toxin Producing Organisms

The use of toxins and venoms to gain control over a limited number of resources is often observed in competitive relationships between organisms. Antagonistic interactions such as allelopathy, exploitative and interference competition significantly contributing to dynamics of coexistence and coevolution of the involved species. Toxin-producing phytoplankton exude allelopathic compounds that…

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A Neurochemical Overview of Sleep, its Deprivation and Hibernation

The phenomenon of sleep has been universally observed among animals, and is driven by a plethora of chemical processes that regulate the animal’s brain activity. The onset of sleep brings about a number of chemical changes driven by various neurotransmitters. These changes allow the brain to carry out and improve…

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Biomechanical Adaptations of the Uterus During Parturition and Birthing

Birthing is a fundamental process to the evolution of animal life on earth. The creation of new life pushes a species further in time, continuing millions of years of advancements. However, birthing itself is often dangerous, putting the mother and the fetus in a vulnerable position. Being the center of…

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