Water

The Physics of Foraminifera

Abstract In the face of tumultuous waters and other such environmental challenges, foraminifera have evolved a wide range of morphological adaptions. Indeed, the development of tests, pores, pseudopodia, and spines have allowed them to thrive within a variety of marine ecosystems, globally, for over 545 million years. Their fossils have

Read More »

Mechanics and Optics of Cyanobacteria: How to Survive over Billions of Years

Abstract This essay sheds light on a unique photoautotrophic prokaryote that presents a wide range of physical properties. Although billions of years old, cyanobacteria still ingeniously make use of their structural composition, mechanical processes, and optical properties to interact with their surroundings. With a strong gliding motility, a light sensing

Read More »

Functional Mechanics of the Elephant and Butterfly Proboscis

The trunk, also known as the proboscis, is a tubular, flexible and hollow appendage that varies in size and function; some species use it to regulate temperature, while others use it for feeding or grabbing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the biological mechanics of the movement and…

Read More »

Spines: The Multitudes and Multi-functionalities of their Mechanisms

Abstract Many organisms possess internal defense mechanisms, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity exacerbates further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as predation and habitat unique to each species results in various physical design mechanisms for spines and quills.…

Read More »

Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomechanics and Materials 

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

Read More »