Signals and Systems

Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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How mathematics governs the nature of tentacles

The tentacle displays a variety of fascinating properties and functions which scientists have attempted to comprehend via mathematical models over the years. In fact, such numerical modeling emphasizes how the appendage has evolved to become optimized for rapid movement, fine-tuned sensation, and skillful predation via its colour-changing abilities. It also…

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The Complexity of Spines and their Mathematical Connections

Physical phenomena seen in nature are often optimized and refined to achieve a particular function. Evaluating spines’ physical and chemical characteristics can only reveal so much in the story of the optimization process. Modeling is an extremely powerful tool to unlock the secrets of developing the hidden strengths of particular…

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Mathematical modeling of aerodynamic functions of aquatic and avian tails

The world of mathematics holds much value when it comes to computing, establishing, and resolving the many different complex relationships found in natural sciences. This, naturally, holds true for biological systems and their vast array of unique biomechanical tools and even for the complex diversity in social behaviors. In this…

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Resonating Devices in Nature for Communication and Information Reception

ABSTRACT Vibrations and resonance are pervasive means of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom. The tools, appendages, and organs used by an animal to amplify vibrations are known as resonating devices, which are the focus of this review. Animals from cicadas to lions employ resonating devices for functions…

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Mathematical Modeling of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

ABSTRACTAcoustic resonance is a natural phenomenon such that vibrations at specific frequencies tend to be amplified due to the natural properties of the medium through which they travel. Depending on the medium’s mechanical characteristics, different vibrational frequencies can be amplified. The biological significance of resonance comes from its ability to…

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Chemical Mechanisms of Resonating Devices in Animals for Communication and Information Reception

Acoustic resonance is a highly effective method of communication and information reception in the animal kingdom, pervasively employed by creatures as small as the 4mm Nuctenea sclopetaria spider and as large as  the colossal Orcinus orca (killer whale). Resonance is often achieved either via specialized organs or an extended phenotype.…

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Population Dynamics for Mutualistic Relationships

Mathematics is increasingly present in various disciplines and especially in biology. Modeling in biology began to be used in population dynamics to model the growth of populations and the multiple interactions that may exist between them. There are many different types of models that can be constructed, with various levels…

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A Mathematical Representation of Brain Activity During Sleep

While an organism may seem inactive and static while sleeping, its brain displays a host of unique electrical brain activity. When these voltage fluctuations are graphically represented as waves, it illustrates how the brain processes and consolidates information between its neurons. Delta waves, theta waves, and sleep spindles are each…

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Animal Communication: A Mathematical Review

Nature is composed of a variety of colours and rhythms.  Within these displays of color and rhythm exist patterns and relations, which have been studied and modelled to better understand existing relations and recurrences. In the animal kingdom, communication has evolved through both spontaneous and instantaneous patterns and relations, which can be…

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