Collagen

An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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Spiky Surprises: The Chemistry of Spines and Quills

Many organisms possess an internal defense mechanism, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity is exacerbated further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as resource availability can result in various chemical and structural design mechanisms for spines and quills. However,…

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A Multi-Functional Armor: Carapaces’ Roles in Different Animals

The carapace is the dorsal section of the exoskeleton of many animals. This article discusses the multifunctionality of some animals’ carapaces. In the introduction, the necessity of the carapace and its potential hindrance is generally described. The body uses peer-reviewed research, experiments, and reviews to explain the structure and multifunctionality…

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The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

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The Hormone-Dependent Regenerative Basis of Antlers

Antlers are unique architectures. They are shed and rebuilt at yearly intervals, growing from bony pedicles in early spring to full-fledged structures cast in late March. The antler growth cycle—known as antlerogenesis—is a process controlled by the fluctuating interactions of myriad hormones, mainly testosterone. The growth rate is among the…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Jaws: Terrific yet Terrifying

Jaws are an amazing system as they can contribute to many aspects of life such as eating, defence, locomotion, etc. Each species has specific needs and thus each set of jaws tends to be adapted to fit these demands. In the animal kingdom, some jaws show unique characteristics, which not…

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Chemical Adaptation in Viviparous Birthing and Oviparous Hatching

One of the first stages of life in any animal is time spent as a developing embryo. Every embryo must undergo complex development aided by its parent for a certain period of time before their birth or hatching, and this process varies greatly depending on the type of species. Specifically,…

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Biomechanical Adaptations of the Uterus During Parturition and Birthing

Birthing is a fundamental process to the evolution of animal life on earth. The creation of new life pushes a species further in time, continuing millions of years of advancements. However, birthing itself is often dangerous, putting the mother and the fetus in a vulnerable position. Being the center of…

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