Gene Expression and Regulation

The Biochemical Features of Tardigrades and Their Roles in Maintaining Cellular Functional Integrity

Extensive studies have been carried out regarding tardigrades’ so-called tun state as a means of survival in the face of all sorts of harsh environmental conditions. While the surviving capabilities of tardigrades in inhospitable habitats are outstanding and worth examining, many of the ways by which they succeed in maintaining…

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Nature’s Nanomagnets: A Chemical Perspective on Magnetotactic Bacteria

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are complex organisms that have evolved a multitude of internal chemical processes to survive their harsh environments. This paper discusses the details of important biological molecules, metabolic systems, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the vital functions of MTB. Notably, biomineralization is a chemical, multi-step process that…

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Adaptations in Chemical Processes

This article explores the chemistry behind the diverse functions and characteristics of aquatic fungi, a fascinating group of microorganisms that inhabit freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic fungi play an important role in the cycling of nutrients and the decomposition of organic matter. This article gives an overview elucidating the key…

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Biomolecular Applications of Animal Horns

Ovis canadensis (“Bighorn Sheep,” 2022) Chemistry is the basis of life. Behind every thought, feeling, movement, or biological function, there are a series of chemical reactions occurring. With this said, it comes as no surprise that the chemical composition of animal horns plays a vital role in the mechanical properties,…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Reaction Diffusion Patterns in Jaws of the Animal Kingdom

The endless number of patterns in nature is fascinating; they vary from spots on tigers, to lines on wood, to even teeth patterns in alligators. A mystery lies beneath all of this variety: how do these complex patterns arise and form such differing patterns? The origin of these patterns in…

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Feedback Loops and Circadian Rhythms in Parturition and Hatching

Birthing is the process that keeps animals involved within evolution. Nature encourages animals to reproduce and to allow their offspring to prolong the life of their species. These intricate processes of parturition and hatching are based on mathematical concepts such as feedback loops, where stimulus generates stimulus, and circadian rhythms.…

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Phylogenetic Adaptations and Biochemical Mechanisms Contributing to the Unique Lifespan and Ageing of Bats

Scientists have investigated the cause of ageing for centuries, but there is no single source of age, rather, the ageing process occurs due to a combination of numerous factors. Examined in this paper are 4 categories of determinants of maximum lifespan in organisms: telomere dynamics and maintenance, mitochondrial repair and…

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