Courtship and Mating

A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

Read More »

Crab Chelae Allometry and Implications on Game-Theoretic Armament Evolution

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral component of many arthropod species. Many species, from arachnids to crustaceans, rely on the chelae for survival. Chelae are a highly functional and morphologically diverse group of structures found in crustaceans whose functions range from cracking open coconuts in coconut crabs to…

Read More »

A Biochemical Review of Exoskeletal and Muscular Pincer Components and Biomimetic Applications

Abstract Pincers, or chelae, are a highly advantageous biological tool possessed by many arthropods. The chelae are useful and necessary for the survival of many species from arachnids to crustaceans. The scorpion’s pincers have a variety of purposes, including grasping and capturing prey, and deterring predators. Chelae are a highly…

Read More »

Mathematical modeling of aerodynamic functions of aquatic and avian tails

The world of mathematics holds much value when it comes to computing, establishing, and resolving the many different complex relationships found in natural sciences. This, naturally, holds true for biological systems and their vast array of unique biomechanical tools and even for the complex diversity in social behaviors. In this…

Read More »

The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

Read More »

Courtship and Mating Within Evolutionary Game

In this essay, we investigated methods of mathematical modeling which can be utilized to describe evolutionary game theory. An organism’s evolutionary fitness is defined by their ability to pass their genes on to their offspring. Without effective courting and mating practices, it is impossible to find quality mates and therefore…

Read More »

Animal Communication: A Mathematical Review

Nature is composed of a variety of colours and rhythms.  Within these displays of color and rhythm exist patterns and relations, which have been studied and modelled to better understand existing relations and recurrences. In the animal kingdom, communication has evolved through both spontaneous and instantaneous patterns and relations, which can be…

Read More »

Animal Communication: A Chemical Review

Chemical reactions are the base of our universe. From the light of the sun to the function of our own brains, chemical reactions are behind it. It is therefore not unrealistic to imagine that communication can also be explained by chemical reactions. This paper examines the chemistry behind different forms…

Read More »

Master of Camouflage: Chemical Deception in Insect and Plant Species

When the topic of camouflage and mimicry is discussed, it is often associated with the idea of colors and complex patterning. The visual aspect of camouflage is something that many are familiar with. Plenty of organisms express an array of vibrant colours and deceiving visuals for both protection and methods…

Read More »

Courtship and Mating: The Chemistry of Pheromones and Their Evolutionary Function

In this essay we investigate the chemistry involved in the reproductive process. Courtship and mating practices are not limited to physical and auditory pursuits. Pheromones cause innate chemical allurement between compatible animals. There are a wide range of pheromones, and each have their own specific properties and functions. Different pheromones…

Read More »

Animal Communication: A Physical Review

Communication in the animal kingdom has been explored by humans for centuries. As the species with the most elaborate form of communication, language, we seek to understand how other species interact amongst themselves. Though we are unable to comprehend their communication in the way that we understand our own speech,…

Read More »

Courtship and Mating: the Physics of Sexual Dimorphism and its Evolutionary Function

Sexual dimorphisms are defined as the differences in size and anatomy between sexes of animals of the same species. These differences arise from reproductive pressures and oftentimes have no survival benefits. The manifestation of such sexual dimorphisms varies significantly based on courting and mating practices. In this essay, we analyze…

Read More »