Migration and Navigation

Mathematical Analysis of Amoebas

Despite lacking a conventional nervous system as in more complex organisms, amoebae of various kinds display signs of “intelligence” in their high adaptability to the environment and their problem-solving abilities, which have fascinated scientists for many years. In this essay, we discuss various examples of amoeboid intelligence, such as their…

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Discussion of Nature’s Design Solutions in Tintinnids: Masters of Microzooplankton Survival

In this essay, we explore tintinnids’ survival designs within the context of fundamental physics principles. Tintinnids employ diverse mechanisms to outmaneuver predators, locate prey, and safeguard themselves. To avoid predators, tintinnids utilize specific swimming patterns, attach to groups of particles, develop symbiotic relationships with diatoms, and have undergone morphological adaptations…

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Magnetic Marvels: A Mathematical Exploration of Magnetotactic Bacteria

Order can be found within the seemingly complex, and perhaps even disordered, processes and shapes that constitute magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). This order can be explained by the concepts of mathematics. First and foremost, the crystalline structures within the magnetosomes of MTB can be modelled mathematically. Magnetite and greigite crystals consist…

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Physical Principles Governing the Movement of Dinoflagellates and The Implications for Their Interactions in Aquatic Ecosystems

Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotic cells. There are around 2400 known species of dinoflagellates. This phylum is very diverse; among different species, we observe several unique characteristics of behavior and morphology. All dinoflagellates, however, have two flagella. These flagella allow them to swim in a unique and interesting manner. A dinoflagellate…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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The Physical Properties and Interactions of Coccolithophores

Coccolithophores are one of the world’s most important calcifying organisms. Populating the greater light-intensive areas of the ocean, these unicellular haptophytes are more broadly classified as photosynthetic phytoplankton. These organisms’ anatomy, physiology, and various processes make them irreplaceable contributors to the world’s carbon cycle. They are responsible for modifying upper-ocean…

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The Hydrodynamic Advantages of Shark Scales

This essay examines the drag-reductive properties of sharks’ scales and analyzes the macroscale and microscale structures and mechanisms that diminished turbulence for the fish in motion over the course of evolution. Fluid dynamics theory and Reynold’s number are used to explain the high reduction of turbulence and friction drag in…

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The Gravity of Connectivity in Migratory Birds During a Climate Emergency

All populations form networks which describe their interactions, mixing and mating. Migratory populations also form networks, but these are much more complex because of the continuously migrating populations throughout the seasons. Migratory networks are more fragile but are a fundamental pillar to bird populations. They can aid populations but can…

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Stable Isotope Analysis: Predictive Power and Challenges

The presence of stable isotopes, i.e., elements with extra (or missing) neutrons which do not decay over time, provides a strong tool for tracing of animal activities in both the near and distant past. Quantification of these stable isotopes using mass spectrometry, followed by mathematical analysis, allows scientists to make…

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Hormonal Control of Molting

Molting is a crucial and intricate process requiring the timely shedding of an animal’s body part, which may include the epidermis, the pelage, or the entire exoskeleton. In accordance with the extraordinary diversity observed within the animal kingdom, molting takes many forms and is characterized by specific processes for each…

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