Competition and Evolutionary Arms Race

Mechanical Analysis of Animal Horns

This essay dives into animal horns and the physical composition, mechanical properties, and ingenious designs that make them incredibly effective at everything they do. It features a selection of horn structures from different organisms in the animal kingdom, which demonstrates the diversity of horn structures while also showing the uniform…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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Crab Chelae Allometry and Implications on Game-Theoretic Armament Evolution

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral component of many arthropod species. Many species, from arachnids to crustaceans, rely on the chelae for survival. Chelae are a highly functional and morphologically diverse group of structures found in crustaceans whose functions range from cracking open coconuts in coconut crabs to…

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The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

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Mathematical Modeling of the Antler Growth Cycle

Antler regeneration is a complex process unique in nature because of its year-long perpetual cycle. Although antlerogenesis is a process shared by all males in the Cervid family, many factors affect individual antler growth and the characteristics of individual antlers. This paper will discuss these factors and their effect on…

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A Biomechanical Review of Animal Tongue Functions

The animal kingdom is characterized by an astonishing diversity in tongue morphologies, functions and mechanical abilities. Through evolution, different animal tongues have adapted to perform complex mechanical functions in prey-catching and feeding in order to ensure the survival of their species. Chameleons possess the ability to ballistically project their tongues…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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Jaws: Terrific yet Terrifying

Jaws are an amazing system as they can contribute to many aspects of life such as eating, defence, locomotion, etc. Each species has specific needs and thus each set of jaws tends to be adapted to fit these demands. In the animal kingdom, some jaws show unique characteristics, which not…

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Patterns and Networks in Animal Colonies

This essay analyses an assortment of animal homes and the way they are constructed, maintained, and affected due to the environment that surrounds them. Since the usage of a refuge has been moulded by the evolution of animals in their original environment, recurring patterns can be observed when analyzing these…

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Courtship and Mating Within Evolutionary Game

In this essay, we investigated methods of mathematical modeling which can be utilized to describe evolutionary game theory. An organism’s evolutionary fitness is defined by their ability to pass their genes on to their offspring. Without effective courting and mating practices, it is impossible to find quality mates and therefore…

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Modeling Population Dynamics & Evolutionary Cooperation with Game Theory

Since the development of game theory, it has been used to model behaviours exhibited by individuals in situations involving strategy optimization involving mathematical concepts and calculations. When applied to the field of evolutionary biology, evolutionary game theory is derived to model the competitive strategies and evolutionary decisions found in many…

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