Golden Ratio

Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Using Mathematical Principles to Gain a Deeper Understanding of the Form and Function of Hooves

The role of ungulates’ hooves, which are morphologically complex structures, is to support body weight and provide traction to aid in their adaptation to varied external conditions. This essay aims to investigate the relationship between the mathematical model and the morphology of the hoof. The golden ratio, an irrational constant…

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An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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