Toxic chemicals

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GONIUM

ABSTRACT  Gonium is a genus of multicellular green algae with chemical systems of high complexity developed by generations of evolution. Gonium is an autotroph and exhibits a variety of chemical photocycles that control its behavior without a central nervous system. Because Gonium has no cellular differentiation, chemical systems exist separately

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Deciphering Daphnia Dynamics: A Mathematical Odyssey into Aquatic Ecosystems

Abstract Amongst all the chaos found in aquatic ecosystems, Daphnia emerges as a small yet pivotal player, embodying the complexity and adaptability of life. This study presents a mathematical journey into Daphnia populations, revealing the sophisticated interplay between their unique reproductive strategies, survival tactics, and trophic interactions. Cyclical parthenogenesis, a

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The Biochemical Nature of Cyanobacteria

ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria are a phylum of gram-negative bacteria that have been found in a vast range of habitats including Antarctic lakes, hot thermal springs, tropical soil, and even arid climates. These microorganisms have gained attention for their photosynthetic capabilities, long history on Earth, and more recently, eutrophic blooms due to

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Copepods Through the Lens of Chemistry

Abstract Copepods, a resilient group of crustaceans, are adaptable to a variety of environments. This paper explores the captivating world of copepods, focusing on how they are resilient towards cyanobacterial blooms and toxic diatoms, and how they use bioluminescence and pigmentation to increase their fitness levels. Copepods have evolved symbiotic

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The Metabolism and Movement of Dinoflagellate from a Chemical Perspective

Dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that target the voltage-gated channels of muscle and nerve cells. Consumption of these toxins through contaminated seafood is the cause of human illnesses such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Some of these toxins are complex molecules and are some of the largest naturally produced carbon chains found…

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The Biochemical Features of Tardigrades and Their Roles in Maintaining Cellular Functional Integrity

Extensive studies have been carried out regarding tardigrades’ so-called tun state as a means of survival in the face of all sorts of harsh environmental conditions. While the surviving capabilities of tardigrades in inhospitable habitats are outstanding and worth examining, many of the ways by which they succeed in maintaining…

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Review of the Mechanical, Structural, and Physical Properties of Pincers: An Evolutionary Wonder

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral and signature part of many arthropods. From arachnids to crustaceans, pincers exhibit critical functional roles in survival. The pincers of scorpions are notably multifunctional with their importance in seizing and capturing prey while inflicting pain and deterring predators. In crustaceans, chelae exhibit…

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Jaws: Terrific yet Terrifying

Jaws are an amazing system as they can contribute to many aspects of life such as eating, defence, locomotion, etc. Each species has specific needs and thus each set of jaws tends to be adapted to fit these demands. In the animal kingdom, some jaws show unique characteristics, which not…

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Courtship and Mating Within Evolutionary Game

In this essay, we investigated methods of mathematical modeling which can be utilized to describe evolutionary game theory. An organism’s evolutionary fitness is defined by their ability to pass their genes on to their offspring. Without effective courting and mating practices, it is impossible to find quality mates and therefore…

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Master of Camouflage: Chemical Deception in Insect and Plant Species

When the topic of camouflage and mimicry is discussed, it is often associated with the idea of colors and complex patterning. The visual aspect of camouflage is something that many are familiar with. Plenty of organisms express an array of vibrant colours and deceiving visuals for both protection and methods…

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