Stress and Strain

A Mathematical Approach to Understanding Volvox

Abstract This paper sheds light on the suitability of mathematical theories and models to unveil a variety of design solutions inherent to Volvox. Having evolved from the unicellular Chlamydomonas, Volvox demonstrates that multicellularity is of particular interest to improve the nutrient uptake per somatic cell. Also, randomness plays a role

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The Biophysics of Volvox

Abstract Volvox are microscopic colonial algae that are heavily studied as they are one of the simplest examples of multicellular organisms. Composed of hundreds to tens of thousands of individual cells moving in harmony, they are the source of several mesmerizing phenomena, each of them serving a purpose for the

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Analysis of the Survival Mechanisms of Hydra

Abstract This paper aims to get a better understanding of the physical properties of Hydras. It describes the structure of the body of the Hydra as well as its behavior and interactions with its environment, with a focus on physics. Despite its relatively simple nervous system, characterized by a nerve

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GONIUM

ABSTRACT Gonium pectorale is a small 16-celled photosynthetic algae that provides a refreshing outlook on the evolution of green algae and the concept of modularity. Each individual cell operates with its own two flagella, which are propulsion appendages, and an eyespot, an optical light sensor. Without a central nervous system,

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Phenotypic Adaptation of Daphnia Throughout Evolution

Abstract Daphnia, referred to as water fleas due to their distinctive hop-and-sink swimming pattern, are commonly found navigating freshwater lakes and ponds. Their phenotype, finely tuned to their environment and way of life, is dynamically adaptive throughout their lifecycle, showcasing variations in eye size, carapace shape, and swimming behaviors. Their compound

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Mechanics and Optics of Cyanobacteria: How to Survive over Billions of Years

Abstract This essay sheds light on a unique photoautotrophic prokaryote that presents a wide range of physical properties. Although billions of years old, cyanobacteria still ingeniously make use of their structural composition, mechanical processes, and optical properties to interact with their surroundings. With a strong gliding motility, a light sensing

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Discussion of Nature’s Design Solutions in Tintinnids: Masters of Microzooplankton Survival

In this essay, we explore tintinnids’ survival designs within the context of fundamental physics principles. Tintinnids employ diverse mechanisms to outmaneuver predators, locate prey, and safeguard themselves. To avoid predators, tintinnids utilize specific swimming patterns, attach to groups of particles, develop symbiotic relationships with diatoms, and have undergone morphological adaptations…

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Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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Mathematical Modeling of Marine Suction Cups

Many marine animals have evolved to include suction cups, and the suction cups of the natural world continue to inspire synthetic cup technology. Mathematical models can be used to understand the adaptations of different species and the way these operate. By deepening the knowledge of suction mechanisms, new and better…

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Using Mathematical Principles to Gain a Deeper Understanding of the Form and Function of Hooves

The role of ungulates’ hooves, which are morphologically complex structures, is to support body weight and provide traction to aid in their adaptation to varied external conditions. This essay aims to investigate the relationship between the mathematical model and the morphology of the hoof. The golden ratio, an irrational constant…

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Mechanical Analysis of Animal Horns

This essay dives into animal horns and the physical composition, mechanical properties, and ingenious designs that make them incredibly effective at everything they do. It features a selection of horn structures from different organisms in the animal kingdom, which demonstrates the diversity of horn structures while also showing the uniform…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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