Imaging Techniques

Art in Symmetry: Mathematical Models that Dictate Radiolarian Structures

– ABSTRACT – This essay explores the fascinating intersection of mathematics and biology through the study of Radiolaria, which are intricate marine protozoa known for their symmetrical skeletal structures. The idea of symmetry is the core of this investigation, highlighting how radial and bilateral formations in Radiolaria are not only

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The Physical Adaptations Underlying the Tardigrade’s Resistance to Extreme Environmental Conditions 

Although tardigrades were discovered in the late 18th century, they have continued to captivate scientists due to their outstanding resistance to environmental conditions that are lethal to most organisms and that is necessary given their ecological distribution across various environments. Explanations as to the mechanisms underlying this superior resistance have…

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The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

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Magnetic Marvels: A Mathematical Exploration of Magnetotactic Bacteria

Order can be found within the seemingly complex, and perhaps even disordered, processes and shapes that constitute magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). This order can be explained by the concepts of mathematics. First and foremost, the crystalline structures within the magnetosomes of MTB can be modelled mathematically. Magnetite and greigite crystals consist…

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Nature’s Nanomagnets: A Chemical Perspective on Magnetotactic Bacteria

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are complex organisms that have evolved a multitude of internal chemical processes to survive their harsh environments. This paper discusses the details of important biological molecules, metabolic systems, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the vital functions of MTB. Notably, biomineralization is a chemical, multi-step process that…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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The Complexity of Spines and their Mathematical Connections

Physical phenomena seen in nature are often optimized and refined to achieve a particular function. Evaluating spines’ physical and chemical characteristics can only reveal so much in the story of the optimization process. Modeling is an extremely powerful tool to unlock the secrets of developing the hidden strengths of particular…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Spiky Surprises: The Chemistry of Spines and Quills

Many organisms possess an internal defense mechanism, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity is exacerbated further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as resource availability can result in various chemical and structural design mechanisms for spines and quills. However,…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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Cellular and Echolocation Analysis: The Bat Ear

Abstract This report intends to analyze and discuss the organ of the ear from a biomolecular, cellular and tissue engineering perspective. To understand the general function of the ear from such a perspective, a focus is first placed on mammalian ears, more particularly on human ears, with the objective of

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