Analysis

Art in Symmetry: Mathematical Models that Dictate Radiolarian Structures

– ABSTRACT – This essay explores the fascinating intersection of mathematics and biology through the study of Radiolaria, which are intricate marine protozoa known for their symmetrical skeletal structures. The idea of symmetry is the core of this investigation, highlighting how radial and bilateral formations in Radiolaria are not only

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Copepods Through the Lens of Chemistry

Abstract Copepods, a resilient group of crustaceans, are adaptable to a variety of environments. This paper explores the captivating world of copepods, focusing on how they are resilient towards cyanobacterial blooms and toxic diatoms, and how they use bioluminescence and pigmentation to increase their fitness levels. Copepods have evolved symbiotic

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The Physical Adaptations Underlying the Tardigrade’s Resistance to Extreme Environmental Conditions 

Although tardigrades were discovered in the late 18th century, they have continued to captivate scientists due to their outstanding resistance to environmental conditions that are lethal to most organisms and that is necessary given their ecological distribution across various environments. Explanations as to the mechanisms underlying this superior resistance have…

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Copepods Through the Lens of Physics

Abstract This research paper will present copepods from a physics approach while focusing on three key aspects. To begin, the low Reynolds number environment in which copepods reside makes them face entirely different challenges than larger organisms when it comes to the basics for survival like moving, eating, detecting, and

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The Physics of Coral Polyps

Coral polyps have been studied from many scientific standpoints, but this paper will examine coral polyps from a physical standpoint. To begin, polyps were analyzed under the lens of kinetics, relating the specific movement of polyps to the benefits of this movement. Through their natural ability to manipulate water flow…

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Magnetic Marvels: A Mathematical Exploration of Magnetotactic Bacteria

Order can be found within the seemingly complex, and perhaps even disordered, processes and shapes that constitute magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). This order can be explained by the concepts of mathematics. First and foremost, the crystalline structures within the magnetosomes of MTB can be modelled mathematically. Magnetite and greigite crystals consist…

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Nature’s Nanomagnets: A Chemical Perspective on Magnetotactic Bacteria

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are complex organisms that have evolved a multitude of internal chemical processes to survive their harsh environments. This paper discusses the details of important biological molecules, metabolic systems, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the vital functions of MTB. Notably, biomineralization is a chemical, multi-step process that…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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The Complexity of Spines and their Mathematical Connections

Physical phenomena seen in nature are often optimized and refined to achieve a particular function. Evaluating spines’ physical and chemical characteristics can only reveal so much in the story of the optimization process. Modeling is an extremely powerful tool to unlock the secrets of developing the hidden strengths of particular…

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Biomolecular Applications of Animal Horns

Ovis canadensis (“Bighorn Sheep,” 2022) Chemistry is the basis of life. Behind every thought, feeling, movement, or biological function, there are a series of chemical reactions occurring. With this said, it comes as no surprise that the chemical composition of animal horns plays a vital role in the mechanical properties,…

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The Life Cycle of the Whiskers and Antennae of Animals and Insects 

This article explores the various chemical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms relevant to the life cycle of whiskers (barbels) and antennae. The growth of zebrafish barbel is characterized by elongation, vasculature development, and innervation of taste buds. Catfish barbels perform chemical and mechanical sensing; namely, their hyper-sensitive gustatory system enables catfish…

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Spiky Surprises: The Chemistry of Spines and Quills

Many organisms possess an internal defense mechanism, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity is exacerbated further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as resource availability can result in various chemical and structural design mechanisms for spines and quills. However,…

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