Tissue Damage and Dysfunction

From Fetus to Fossil: A Microscopic Analysis of the Chemistry of the Hoof Throughout the Stages of Life

Abstract Hooves are morphologically complex structures among ungulates that support body weight and provide traction to assist their adaptation to various external environments. This article aims to investigate the differences in hooves throughout the stages of life. The perspective narrows from the general topic of hooves down to the fascinating…

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Phylogenetic Adaptations and Biochemical Mechanisms Contributing to the Unique Lifespan and Ageing of Bats

Scientists have investigated the cause of ageing for centuries, but there is no single source of age, rather, the ageing process occurs due to a combination of numerous factors. Examined in this paper are 4 categories of determinants of maximum lifespan in organisms: telomere dynamics and maintenance, mitochondrial repair and…

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An Overview of Transport-Related Interspecies Relationships

There are many different types of interspecies interactions, and they can benefit or harm the organisms involved. This paper briefs several cases where organisms interact with each other in ways that involve transportation, namely using other species for the purpose of transport. The theme of transport focuses on the physical…

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Courtship and Mating: the Physics of Sexual Dimorphism and its Evolutionary Function

Sexual dimorphisms are defined as the differences in size and anatomy between sexes of animals of the same species. These differences arise from reproductive pressures and oftentimes have no survival benefits. The manifestation of such sexual dimorphisms varies significantly based on courting and mating practices. In this essay, we analyze…

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