Cell Division and Differentiation

The Chemistry Lying Deep Within a Volvox Colony

Abstract Despite their apparent simplicity as microorganisms, Volvox are extremely complex living systems whose secrets have yet to be fully uncovered. This paper dives deep within Volvox to tackle the key chemical phenomena responsible for the basic functioning of the colony. The chemical processes involved in Volvox reproduction are based

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Art in Symmetry: Mathematical Models that Dictate Radiolarian Structures

– ABSTRACT – This essay explores the fascinating intersection of mathematics and biology through the study of Radiolaria, which are intricate marine protozoa known for their symmetrical skeletal structures. The idea of symmetry is the core of this investigation, highlighting how radial and bilateral formations in Radiolaria are not only

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A Chemical Analysis of Hydra

Abstract This paper aims to obtain a better understanding of the chemical properties of Hydras. It describes the structure of the body of the Hydra as well as its behavior and interactions with its environment, with a focus on chemistry. Regeneration is a crucial part of Hydra’s survival, and the

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An Investigation into the Chemical Properties of Gonium

ABSTRACT  Gonium is a genus of multicellular green algae with chemical systems of high complexity developed by generations of evolution. Gonium is an autotroph and exhibits a variety of chemical photocycles that control its behavior without a central nervous system. Because Gonium has no cellular differentiation, chemical systems exist separately

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Mathematical Modelling in Lactation: An analysis of hormonal regulation and complex lactation mechanisms

Abstract  Lactation is a unique natural mechanism shared amongst mammalian species that serves the primary purpose of providing offspring with the vital nutrition and immune support necessary in the early stages of fetal development.  The process of lactation has been extensively researched and has led to the application of mathematical

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Phylogenetic Adaptations and Biochemical Mechanisms Contributing to the Unique Lifespan and Ageing of Bats

Scientists have investigated the cause of ageing for centuries, but there is no single source of age, rather, the ageing process occurs due to a combination of numerous factors. Examined in this paper are 4 categories of determinants of maximum lifespan in organisms: telomere dynamics and maintenance, mitochondrial repair and…

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Chemical Adaptation in Viviparous Birthing and Oviparous Hatching

One of the first stages of life in any animal is time spent as a developing embryo. Every embryo must undergo complex development aided by its parent for a certain period of time before their birth or hatching, and this process varies greatly depending on the type of species. Specifically,…

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Abstract Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly,

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Regulation of the Gut and its Effect on Animal Behavior

Abstract This paper explores how neurotransmitters, chemical signals, and the enteric nervous system regulate this impressive organ. It then follows with an extensive account of how the gut microbiome influences social groups, recognition cues, and mating preferences among animals. Finally, acting as complementary sections for “Stable Isotopes and Diet Analysis:

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Hypotheses for the Tooth Eruption Mechanism

Abstract Tooth eruption, the movement of the tooth germ from its non-functional position in the alveolar processes to its final function position in the oral cavity, is a little-known mechanism despite being highly documented. Many theories try to explain the mechanism of the eruption of the tooth; however, none succeed

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