An Evolutionary Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Marine Suction Cups

Abstract Suction cups are important adaptations for aquatic animals, allowing for predation, locomotion, stability, and other species-specific functions. The chemical structure of each suction cup is designed by nature to be as energetically efficient as possible in performing the suction cup’s species-specific purpose, giving the suction cup chemical properties that…

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Spines: The Multitudes and Multi-functionalities of their Mechanisms

Abstract Many organisms possess internal defense mechanisms, intrinsic properties, and behaviors adapted for their survival. Spines and quills differ immensely across families, and this disparity exacerbates further amongst taxa. Environmental pressures such as predation and habitat unique to each species results in various physical design mechanisms for spines and quills.…

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