Cell Culture

Essential Nutrient and Microbiota Transfers Through Trophic Levels

Like for any engineering system, it is senseless to try and understand a natural habitat without analyzing the sum of its parts. It with this insight that scientists develop trophic networks, ecological models that help in more accurately measuring the true impact that one species has on all others in…

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An Overview of Chemical Communications in Interspecies Mutualism Relationships

From the first living beings (bacteria, protozoa) to that of the most organized beings (mammals, insects, etc.), chemical communication, in the form of molecular exchange, has been an essential and universally used communication system. However, this system has only been studied for less than a hundred years, while the vision…

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Biological Design for Lungs and Gills: Biomechanics and Materials 

This report describes two of the most important gas exchangers for all living animals: lungs and gills. Throughout the research, cutaneous respiration will also be explained; however, the most efficient oxygen diffusing rates are obtained through lungs and gills, which are our main concern. The purpose of this biological design…

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