Crystallization

Frustules: Design solutions in Diatoms

There are many microorganisms in the universe, and they can generally be sorted into three types: prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and acellular. The subject of this paper is a member of the eukaryotic family, and they are commonly present in nature: the diatom. The diatomite which is formed by the death of…

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The Mathematical Principles Pertaining to Coccolithophores

Through their production of protective calcite shells known as coccospheres, coccolithophores are known as one of the ocean’s many architects. These coccospheres can be broken down into smaller and smaller components: individual ‘shields’ known as coccoliths and singular calcite crystals. Both the arrangement of individual calcite crystals in coccoliths and…

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An Analysis of the Chemistry Behind Coccolithophores

            The world’s irreplaceable calcifying organism, coccolithophore, utilizes many different chemical processes in its quest for calcification and survival, among other things. The processes and structures detailed in this paper demonstrate how coccolithophores cleverly use the readily available molecules around them to contribute to their various processes and structural demands.…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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