Calcification

An Analysis of the Chemistry Behind Coccolithophores

            The world’s irreplaceable calcifying organism, coccolithophore, utilizes many different chemical processes in its quest for calcification and survival, among other things. The processes and structures detailed in this paper demonstrate how coccolithophores cleverly use the readily available molecules around them to contribute to their various processes and structural demands.…

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The Physical Properties and Interactions of Coccolithophores

Coccolithophores are one of the world’s most important calcifying organisms. Populating the greater light-intensive areas of the ocean, these unicellular haptophytes are more broadly classified as photosynthetic phytoplankton. These organisms’ anatomy, physiology, and various processes make them irreplaceable contributors to the world’s carbon cycle. They are responsible for modifying upper-ocean…

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A Chemical Perspective on the Carapace

Abstract The carapace’s chemical properties are of interest in a lot of scientific research since they provide insight into an organisms’ life cycles and ecological niche. This article presents a few chemical perspectives on carapace, including their evolution, calcification, pigment production, and composition. In the evolution section, the chemical processes…

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A Biochemical Review of Exoskeletal and Muscular Pincer Components and Biomimetic Applications

Abstract Pincers, or chelae, are a highly advantageous biological tool possessed by many arthropods. The chelae are useful and necessary for the survival of many species from arachnids to crustaceans. The scorpion’s pincers have a variety of purposes, including grasping and capturing prey, and deterring predators. Chelae are a highly…

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Biomineralization in Mollusks and Brachiopods

The beauty of shells hides an elaborate interrelationship of structures that provides a protective layer against environmental and predatorial threats. The constant need to defend their soft body has driven mollusks to develop complex shell structures that maximize their chances of survival. This essay reviews the understanding of the process of…

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Stable Isotope Analysis: Predictive Power and Challenges

The presence of stable isotopes, i.e., elements with extra (or missing) neutrons which do not decay over time, provides a strong tool for tracing of animal activities in both the near and distant past. Quantification of these stable isotopes using mass spectrometry, followed by mathematical analysis, allows scientists to make…

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The Biochemical Basis of Fossilization

In exceptional cases, organism remains may fossilize, persisting in sediment and retaining morphological features across great lengths of time. Eluding complete biological breakdown, these special artifacts of nature are evidence of previous life on Earth and archive the planet’s diverse history. Here, we investigate several environmental conditions which influence fossilization,…

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Chemical Adaptation in Viviparous Birthing and Oviparous Hatching

One of the first stages of life in any animal is time spent as a developing embryo. Every embryo must undergo complex development aided by its parent for a certain period of time before their birth or hatching, and this process varies greatly depending on the type of species. Specifically,…

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