Functional Mechanics of the Elephant and Butterfly Proboscis

The trunk, also known as the proboscis, is a tubular, flexible and hollow appendage that varies in size and function; some species use it to regulate temperature, while others use it for feeding or grabbing. The purpose of this paper is to explore the biological mechanics of the movement and…

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Biomechanics of Marine Suction Cups and Applications to Artificial Suction Technology

Suction cups are important adhesive adaptations for many marine animals, allowing for locomotion, predation, stability, and grasping of objects. Interesting morphological adaptations have allowed the suction cups of distinct species to best accommodate the purpose of the suctioning mechanism as well as the unique environment that the organism inhabits. The…

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Evolution of Mammary Glands and the Biomechanics of Mammalian Lactation

Lactation constitutes an important aspect of mammalian physiology and reproduction and is a key trait that defines mammals. The evolution of lactation is a story of great controversy, however, and the main theories behind the apparition of mammary glands will be discussed in the following paragraphs. In addition, the origin…

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