Vision

Sensory Cascades and Pathways – Natural and Artificial Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks are used to mimic the functionalities of the brain via computing systems. This paper will first examine the general structure and function of artificial neural networks, as well as their similarities and differences to the brain’s neural network, after which they are modelled. Then, the essay will…

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Animal Communication: A Physical Review

Communication in the animal kingdom has been explored by humans for centuries. As the species with the most elaborate form of communication, language, we seek to understand how other species interact amongst themselves. Though we are unable to comprehend their communication in the way that we understand our own speech,…

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Courtship and Mating: the Physics of Sexual Dimorphism and its Evolutionary Function

Sexual dimorphisms are defined as the differences in size and anatomy between sexes of animals of the same species. These differences arise from reproductive pressures and oftentimes have no survival benefits. The manifestation of such sexual dimorphisms varies significantly based on courting and mating practices. In this essay, we analyze…

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The Hidden Properties Behind Animal Foraging Strategies

Fundamentally, foraging is the action of searching and collecting for food in nature. Unlike hunting, which is distinguished by active pursuit and flight, foraging centers around detection, gathering and transport. Every animal has their individualized method for foraging, nevertheless, these methods are either designed to be performed individually or collaboratively.…

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Information Storage and Processing as Part of Pattern Formation, Photoreception, Thermoreception, and Mechanoreception of the Integument

Biological information storage and processing form the foundation for understanding organisms’ operation in nature. In this report, we examine the signaling and mathematical components of the skin from a portfolio of animals to illustrate their significance in governing the biomolecular and structural components in which they are intertwined. Particularly, we…

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Visual Lateralization in the Animal Kingdom

The vertebrate brain has succeeded in the specialization of different traits and abilities through dividing it into two hemispheres, where the left hemisphere is better than the right one when conducting certain tasks, and vice versa. This specialization, called brain lateralization, also effects vision in vertebrates. In fact, visual lateralization,…

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The Biomolecular Design of the Eye

In “The Optical Properties of Camera Eyes” the optical properties of the camera-type eye and how light can properly converge light onto the retina to endow an organism with a clear picture of its surroundings were discussed (Gedik et al., 2020). To summarize, the camera eye of many animal species…

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The Optical Properties of Camera Eyes

Sight undeniably plays a crucial role in the lives of many organisms on Earth. Many species heavily rely on sight for their survival; vision provides to them the early warning stimuli signaling the presence of a threat. However, it also enriches our perception of our surroundings, giving it color, form,…

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