Flagella

Just Keep Swimming: Structure, Movement, and Light Interactions of Unicellular Green Algae

          Popular scientific theory suggests that life on earth originated in a primordial ocean billions of years ago. Basic prokaryotic cells allegedly diverged into eukaryotes, and chloroplasts that produce oxygen later appeared. The first organisms with functioning chloroplasts are presumed to be a kind of marine algae. The genus of…

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A Mathematical Approach to Understanding Volvox

Abstract This paper sheds light on the suitability of mathematical theories and models to unveil a variety of design solutions inherent to Volvox. Having evolved from the unicellular Chlamydomonas, Volvox demonstrates that multicellularity is of particular interest to improve the nutrient uptake per somatic cell. Also, randomness plays a role

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The Biophysics of Volvox

Abstract Volvox are microscopic colonial algae that are heavily studied as they are one of the simplest examples of multicellular organisms. Composed of hundreds to tens of thousands of individual cells moving in harmony, they are the source of several mesmerizing phenomena, each of them serving a purpose for the

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The Innovative Structural and Physical Properties of Radiolaria

ABSTRACT The intricate silica skeletons of Radiolaria, a type of marine microorganism, exhibit striking optical fiber-like properties, offering a potential roadmap for future innovations in the optical field. Beyond their applications for photonics, radiolarians are fascinating models for studying buoyancy control. They exhibit a variety of adaptive mechanisms that alter

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An Investigation into the Mathematical Modeling of the Properties of Gonium

ABSTRACT  The multicellular algae of genus Gonium have been shown to be a remarkable feat of evolution. It can be difficult to fully appreciate the colonial algae’s ingenuity when only observing the organism. By attempting to model their behaviour, insight into the beauty of their design can be gained in

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An Investigation into the Chemical Properties of Gonium

ABSTRACT  Gonium is a genus of multicellular green algae with chemical systems of high complexity developed by generations of evolution. Gonium is an autotroph and exhibits a variety of chemical photocycles that control its behavior without a central nervous system. Because Gonium has no cellular differentiation, chemical systems exist separately

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An Investigation of the Physical Properties of Gonium

ABSTRACT Gonium pectorale is a small 16-celled photosynthetic algae that provides a refreshing outlook on the evolution of green algae and the concept of modularity. Each individual cell operates with its own two flagella, which are propulsion appendages, and an eyespot, an optical light sensor. Without a central nervous system,

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Exploring the Mathematics of Unicellular Green Algae (Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii)

Mathematics could be described as an area of knowledge involving the use of numbers, equations, and models to describe phenomena, but at its essence, mathematics is the language of the universe. Accordingly, every aspect of the natural world is governed by this “language,” and with each passing day, humanity draws…

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A Physical Analysis of Magnetotactic Bacteria: Nature’s Microscopic Compass as a Solution to a Motile Biotope

Figure 1: Magnetotactic Bacteria (Perduca, 2016). Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are unique aquatic microaerophiles that can align and move in the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. In this paper, the basic physical properties of magnetosomes, some mechanisms, such as magnetotaxis, and phototaxis, involved in the MTB’s motion, and the role…

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Physical Principles Governing the Movement of Dinoflagellates and The Implications for Their Interactions in Aquatic Ecosystems

Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotic cells. There are around 2400 known species of dinoflagellates. This phylum is very diverse; among different species, we observe several unique characteristics of behavior and morphology. All dinoflagellates, however, have two flagella. These flagella allow them to swim in a unique and interesting manner. A dinoflagellate…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Aquatic Adaptation and Interaction

Fungi are eukaryotic microscopic organisms that appear everywhere in the world. The yeast used to make bread and the mushrooms that we eat all belong to Fungi Kingdom. However, there is a big part of fungi, the aquatic fungi, that is not so well-known yet and gains less attention, but…

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