Reproduction

Underwater Chemists; Discussion of Design Solutions in Tintinnid Ciliates

In this essay we explore tintinnids’ intricate design solutions through the lens of chemical processes and pathways, emphasizing the vital role chemistry plays in their survival. These ciliates employ complex chemical processes that regulate digestion, reproduction, self-protection, and swimming mechanisms. We explore the cell and life cycle of tintinnids, their…

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Mathematical Modelling of Dinoflagellate Swimming, Population Dynamics and Interactions with Other Organisms

Mathematical models have been made to determine the vertical migration of dinoflagellates while considering the availability of nitrogen. Studies have shown that low nitrogen abundances lead to dinoflagellates avoiding sunlight, and not performing diel vertical migration. Dinoflagellate blooms take place under specific conditions of irradiance, temperature, and salinity. A model…

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Mathematical Models of Diatoms: Understanding Their Complex Shape, Reproduction and Chain Formation

Apart from physical and chemical solutions used by the diatom for survival, some features of the unicellular microalgae also could be described in mathematics. For instance, the diatom morphology reveals a striking alignment with the golden ratio and fractal geometry. By examining the silica shells of these unicellular algae, we…

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Life-Sustaining Processes of the Diatom

The chemical reactions, processes, and mechanisms that occur inside diatoms are key to their ability to survive and dominate the world of microalgae. Through photosynthesis, the diatom can absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and then convert them into oxygen and glucose with the help of chlorophyll, which is a common…

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Aquatic Fungi: An Exploration of Adaptations in Chemical Processes

This article explores the chemistry behind the diverse functions and characteristics of aquatic fungi, a fascinating group of microorganisms that inhabit freshwater and marine ecosystems. Aquatic fungi play an important role in the cycling of nutrients and the decomposition of organic matter. This article gives an overview elucidating the key…

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A Mathematical Analysis of Animal Horns

The following essay examines the application of mathematics to biological structures, in particular animal horns. It begins by exploring the evolutionary reasons for ornamental appendages among horned animals.  Mathematical computations reveal a relationship between ornament size and “honest advertisement” due to a high cost of having such large appendages. Furthermore,…

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Crab Chelae Allometry and Implications on Game-Theoretic Armament Evolution

Pincers (alternatively known as chelae) are an integral component of many arthropod species. Many species, from arachnids to crustaceans, rely on the chelae for survival. Chelae are a highly functional and morphologically diverse group of structures found in crustaceans whose functions range from cracking open coconuts in coconut crabs to…

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A Biochemical Review of Exoskeletal and Muscular Pincer Components and Biomimetic Applications

Abstract Pincers, or chelae, are a highly advantageous biological tool possessed by many arthropods. The chelae are useful and necessary for the survival of many species from arachnids to crustaceans. The scorpion’s pincers have a variety of purposes, including grasping and capturing prey, and deterring predators. Chelae are a highly…

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Mathematical modeling of aerodynamic functions of aquatic and avian tails

The world of mathematics holds much value when it comes to computing, establishing, and resolving the many different complex relationships found in natural sciences. This, naturally, holds true for biological systems and their vast array of unique biomechanical tools and even for the complex diversity in social behaviors. In this…

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The Mechanics of Antler Bone: A Weapon for Courtship

An organism’s evolutionary fitness is determined by its ability to pass on its genes to its offspring. Males of some species make use of their courting and fighting abilities to gain access to mates, thus passing on genetic material. When it comes to Cervidae, or the family of ruminant mammals,…

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